cerebral atherosclerosis : Symptoms and Treatment
Disease / / August 12, 2017
- What is atherosclerosis and cerebral atherosclerosis
- etiology or causes of atherosclerosis
- How does the vascular wall in the atherosclerotic process?
- The manifest atherosclerosis
- stages of cerebral atherosclerosis
- atherosclerosis Diagnostics
- principles of modern treatment of cerebral arteriosclerosis
- Dietetic therapy at an atherosclerosis
- Atherosclerosis Prevention
What is atherosclerosis and cerebral atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis - a diseasestriking the inner wall of blood vessels of all internal organs, includ
What is atherosclerosis, everyone knows.But few clearly understand that the process of fat accumulation in the blood vessels in principle inevitable, genetically determined before birth, and it can not be completely avoided.However, it is possible to significantly reduce the risk of stroke by adhering to simple rules and monitoring their health.
etiology or causes of atherosclerosis
There are a number of risk factors that significantly affect the development of atherosclerosis, increasing the risk of complications:
- Smoking.On the dangers of smoking to the body says enough.That smoking is to blame for the fact that the choroid loses its elasticity, becomes brittle and acquires the ability to adhesion (adhesion) to her various agents.
- Diabetes mellitus and other metabolic disorders.
- Hypertension - high blood pressure is usually promotes separation of mature plaques and the development of complications.
- Excess body weight and obesity.
- direct reason is the state of hypercholesterolemia - increase the level of cholesterol and lipoproteins in blood plasma.
- Physical inactivity - sedentary lifestyle (from home to the car, then - work at the computer, the car again, relaxing on the couch watching TV and overeating at night) - the key to fast and "successful" development of atherosclerosis.
- presence of the patient's heart attack or stroke in the past.This factor worsens the prognosis.
- unbalanced and unhealthy diet.
- use of oral contraceptives, ie contraceptive drugs in pill form.
- Age.The older the patient, the higher the risk of complications.
risk factors are modifiable (which can change) and non-modifiable.The latter include the age and the presence of infarction (stroke) in the past.
How does the vascular wall in the atherosclerotic process?
- Initially, the healthier the vessel wall there are areas with high adhesion to the formation of grease and the subsequent deposition of cholesterol.
- Then the proliferation of fibrous tissue forms plaque.
- Plaque causes "twist" of blood, fibrin accumulates, sometimes calcify.
- vessel lumen narrows progressively, sometimes up to 80-90% of the lumen of the large vessels, such as the common carotid arteries that carry blood to the head.These plaques are usually found in areas of bifurcation (separation) of the common carotid artery on the inside and outside.This phenomenon is called carotid stenosis, and is one of the major causes of stroke and expanded symptoms of cerebral arteriosclerosis.
- Too much plaque can not maintain its integrity, and begins to disintegrate.Her part coming off, clog the lumen "downstream", causing ischemia (lack of oxygen and glucose) and necrosis (necrosis) with a stroke.Thus, in the brain often suffers large middle cerebral artery (left or right).
The manifest atherosclerosis
symptoms of atherosclerosis of brain vessels are varied and depend on the stage of the disease and the extent of the brain tissue of chronic ischemia.In that case, if you hear the word "encephalopathy", "chronic brain ischemia" - you know, we are talking about the clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis
- Dizziness, first sporadically, then permanent, but always without nausea and vomiting.
- noise in the ears and head.Noise can have a conventional nature: the blood is forced to "sneak" through the constricted blood vessels and make a noise, as a rule, noise is larger noticeable at night, when there quietly.
- Reduced memory for current events - can lead to dementia (a decrease of intelligence) in severe cases, the patient needs care and constant supervision.
- Headaches, difficult localized, dispersed, low intensity.
- Perversion rhythm sleep - wakefulness: nocturnal insomnia and daytime sleepiness.
- Fall efficiency.
- In advanced cases, possible personality changes (greed, selfishness, the decline of interest in the environment, reduction initiatives, dirtiness).
- Flickering "flies" before the eyes, or photopsias - a manifestation of "oxygen starvation" of the visual cortex of the occipital lobe and the retinal arteries.
- Change gait.Atherosclerosis is not directly affect the gait, but neurological disorders (dizziness, cerebellar disorders) affect it to a large extent.There is a shortening of the pitch, speed reduction in curves and uncertainty.
stages of cerebral atherosclerosis
There is a convenient clinical classification of the disease:
- initial stage (all complaints are reversible, with full restoration of well-being).
- stage progression (complaints are constant), the formation of diffuse neurological symptoms.
- Decompensation (the patient needs care, suffered a stroke or heart attack).
- Complications of cerebral atherosclerosis.
The most severe complication is stroke, namely coronary its kind, when there is necrosis of a certain area of the brain.A stroke can cause death, paralysis, speech disorders and other serious consequences.
That stroke are the leading cause of death, along with heart attacks.In addition, each major stroke event is very expensive health care, as it has during a long recovery and rehabilitation require the participation of many experts (for thrombolytic therapy, neyroreanimatologov, medical exercise therapy, massage therapists, physiotherapists, requires high-tech equipment, special beds, more caregivers).In addition, stroke may lead to disability.
During the stroke zone is formed of irreversible necrosis of brain and neuronal death.Around the necrotic area is large in size area of ischemic injury or ischemic penumbra.Depending on the timely treatment penumbra brain tissue can return to normal function, or can be lost, exacerbating persistent neurological deficit.
Modern diagnostics cerebrovascular atherosclerosis is simple and consists of the following stages:
- biochemical analysis of blood on an empty stomach with the definition of total cholesterol, atherogenic lipid fractions (LDL);
- ultrasound - Doppler cerebral arteries (transcranial ultrasound) and neck (brachiocephalic arteries);
- confirmatory method is angiography of cerebral vessels with intravenous contrast.
principles of modern treatment of cerebral arteriosclerosis
Atherosclerosis refers to those diseases, a cure that can be achieved are often in general without prescribing.However, often it is seen as the unwillingness of doctors to work with the correction of risk factors and the reluctance of patients to change their lifestyle.How to treat atherosclerosis, every doctor knows, but it is impossible without the active participation of the patient.
treatment of atherosclerosis of brain vessels without medicine implies:
- quitting smoking and alcohol consumption (no more than 100 grams in terms of red wine every day);
- reduction of excess weight;
- increase in motor activity: hiking, cycling, gymnastics, swimming.
Drug treatment of cerebral atherosclerosis is most effective if begun after the modification of risk factors.
The following preparations:
- Statins.They are, in addition to reducing cholesterol in the bloodstream, "reinforce" the existing plaque, protecting it from ulceration.It's drugs such as Zocor (simvastatin), Lipitor (atrovastatin), Crestor (rosuvastatin).They have proven efficacy.
- Supplements - vitamins, nicotinic acid, fish oil containing unsaturated fatty acids (Omacor).
- drugs that reduce cholesterol absorption in the intestinal lumen (guar Ezetrol), anion exchange resins (Cholestyramine).
- should give preference to the original medicines, despite their high cost.Domestic analogues, or "generic" is often low in price, but, under existing legislation, they are not required to be identical to the original drugs, and there are low efficiency.
Dietetic therapy at an atherosclerosis
Diet for cerebral atherosclerosis - "a cornerstone" of therapy, as cholesterol, are guilty of "contamination" of vessels, comes only with food.Meals include the following rules:
- Limit cholesterol-products: cocoa, eggs, bacon, fatty meats, offal, animal oil, canned food, sausages, cheeses, meats.
- Eat lots of fiber, bran and fiber.The use of them is twofold: to stimulate peristalsis and bind cholesterol in the lumen.
- Giving preference should be low-calorie natural products.Useful seaweed, cereals, low-fat cottage cheese, dairy products, fruits and vegetables.
- important component is the fresh sea fish and seafood, as a source of unsaturated fatty acids.
- From drinks are good herbal teas, juices.Limit coffee and tea, as stimulants, which increase blood pressure.It is necessary to do as much as possible without salt, replacing it with spices.
atherosclerosis process biologically inevitable.To postpone a clinically significant period of time or to avoid it altogether, we need prevention.
prevention of atherosclerosis - is not nothing but a healthy lifestyle.It includes motor activity, healthy eating, regular sleep, lack of chronic depression, stay in the open air, to maintain their weight and blood pressure are normal, avoiding harmful habits.Therefore, we can put an equal sign between human health and the minimal risk of atherosclerosis.