Cystitis : symptoms in women and treatment
Disease / / August 12, 2017
- What is cystitis?
- Causes of cystitis in women
- Development Mechanism
- cystitis symptoms of cystitis in women
- Types cystitis cystitis Diagnostics
- How and what treat cystitis in women?
- Consequences cystitis
What is cystitis?
Cystitis is an inflammatory disease of the mucous membrane of the urinary bladder.In women, cystitis is more common than in men.This is due to the anatomical structure of the female urogenital system - a short and wide urethra facilitates getting the infection.
Causes of cystitis in women
In the majority of cases of cystitis is infectious nature.Causes of cystitis can be divided into 2 groups:
- nonspecific causes - infections caused by the development of cystitis may lead to inflammatory diseases in other organs.Most often it is conditionally pathogenic bacteria (staphylococcus, streptococcus, E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and others.).
- specific reasons - pathogens are microorganisms that cause inflammation only in the urogenital system organs(ureaplasma, mycoplasma, chlamydia).
In practice, most often the cause of cystitis is Escherichia coli - a representative of conditionally pathogenic flora, which is activated by reducing the overall or local immunity.This is facilitated by several factors:
- local hypothermia (wearing short skirts in the cold season);
- violation of the organization of work and rest;
- chronic sleep deprivation;
- inflammatory diseases in other organs (stomatitis, chronic gastritis);
- unhealthy diet (lack of women in the diet of vitamins and plant food).
mechanism of cystitis
There are 2 ways of infection:
- upward - an inflammatory process starts in the urethra (the urethra), and further extends into the bladder, with the development of cystitis;
- downward - in this case the inflammation process begins in the kidney (renal pelvis often) and then descends along the ureters into the bladder.
symptoms of cystitis in women
symptoms of cystitis quite heterogeneous, their appearance depends on the type of pathogen and reactive abilities of the organism.We can distinguish the following main symptoms:
- pain in the abdomen in the projection of the bladder;
- burning and pain during urination;
- feeling of incomplete emptying after urination;
- false urge to urinate;
- turbid urine color with an unpleasant odor;
- urine a greenish tint (in the formation of pus);
- fever up to 38º C with significant inflammation,
- ingress of bacteria toxins into the blood causes an intoxication.
Acute nonspecific cystitis develops acutely.A woman can easily remember the episode of hypothermia prior to disease.The first signs are manifested as pain in the bladder and the projection frequent painful urination.The frequency of going to the toilet is sharply increased, while the amount of urine slightly.After 1-2 weeks the patient feels acute course of the disease improved.However, this does not mean that the disease has receded, the opposite - a pathological process moved into a chronic form
symptoms of chronic cystitis usually "smeared" - their intensity is less pronounced, they appear and disappear.There may be a separate minor manifestations, and the whole set of symptoms.remission alternate with exacerbations, more frequently occurring in spring and autumn.
specific symptoms of cystitis may be missing, even though the presence of inflammation.Usually marked unexpressed dull pain in the lower abdomen, a slight burning sensation when urinating.Increased body temperature and intoxication never happens.The course is most often chronic, long time, the woman may not be aware of the presence of cystitis.Only laboratory diagnostics.
Before starting treatment is necessary to determine the causative agent.Clarification of diagnosis is to carry out laboratory diagnostics, which includes the following analyzes:
- titer determination (number) in the blood of antibodies to a particular microorganism;
- urine culture;
- if necessary additionally performed a cystoscopy - a study of the bladder mucosa using fiber optic technology.
Urinalysis is paramount in the diagnosis of cystitis.On infection will testify protein in the urine (normally it should not be), and a large number of white blood cells (the cells responsible for the destruction).Also under the microscope, there is a large number of bacteria in sight.
Increasing the number of leukocytes, namely neutrophils indicates a bacterial inflammation in the body.Determination of antibody titer to the pathogen in the blood is carried out in the presence of specific cystitis.In this case, may be determined by antibody ureaplasma, mycoplasma and chlamydia.For the differential diagnosis with other diseases of the bladder cystoscopy doctor prescribes.
How and what treat cystitis in women?
Cystitis in women treated by a doctor nephrologist or urologist (in the case of bladder accompanying surgical pathology).Drug treatment includes therapies like:
- Causal therapy - aimed at the destruction of the pathogen.For this purpose, various antibiotics, selection of which depends on the presence of a microorganism.The most commonly used norfloxacin, furadonin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, doxycycline.Pills cystitis prescribed only when it is mild to moderate current.In the case of pronounced inflammation, with signs of intoxication, used intramuscular or intravenous antibiotics (ceftriaxone).
- pathogenetic therapy - is needed to reduce exposure to toxins on a woman's body.For this purpose the detoxification which represents intravenous saline solutions and sorbents (saline, glucose solution, reosorbilakt).activities aimed at strengthening the immune system is also carried out - using immunomodulatory drugs (Echinacea, Siberian ginseng, Ginseng, Schisandra tincture).
- Symptomatic therapy - its goal of reducing the intensity of symptoms and improvement of health of women.In this case, help painkillers, anti-inflammatory drugs (analgin, nimesil, paracetamol) and antispasmodics (no-spa, authentic).In case of problems with the stomach (gastritis, ulcers) can be used paratsetamolovye candles to reduce pain in the bladder.
important factor in the treatment of cystitis in women is diet.Suitable diet number 9 Pevzner with plenty of fluids, limiting daily salt intake, lack in the diet of fried, spicy and smoked food.
most important thing in the treatment of acute cystitis - completely destroy pathogens in the bladder mucosa as possible development of resistance to antibiotics and the transition to a chronic process, which is longer and harder to treat.To avoid this you need to take antibiotics respectively assigned dosage and duration of treatment stand (mean 7 days).
the treatment of cystitis in the home can use folk remedies.This is primarily herb having diuretic, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic action.These herbs are St. John's wort, a succession, horsetail, cornflower blossoms that take the form of infusion inside.However, before their application should consult with a physician.
If the disease is left untreated or treated improperly, the consequences do not take long to wait:
- transition in pyelonephritis - inflammation of the renal pelvis and cups;
- suppurative complications such as empyema of the bladder;
- under specific pathogen cystitis shift in the internal sexual organs (adnexitis, oophoritis).
To avoid this it is necessary at the first symptoms of cystitis seek professional medical help.