Sinus arrhythmia in ECG - is there any danger?
Disease / / June 11, 2016
- What is sinus arrhythmia?
- clinical picture
- How does heart cardiogram with sinus arrhythmia?
What is sinus arrhythmia?
sinus arrhythmia consider alternating with each other, periods of increase and decrease in heart rate, due to the uneven generation of pulses in the sinus node.There are two types of sinus arrhythmia:
- Cyclic associated with the act of breathing, also called breathing.During inhalation, there is an increase in heart rate, and heart rate during exhalation decreases.
- acyclic and in which there is no communication with the inhalation and exhalation.At the same time slowing and increased heart rate can occur, both through equal and at different time intervals.
Cyclical changes physiological phenomenon, and is considered the norm, non-cyclic rhythm disturbances can often be the result of pathological processes in the body.
Respiratory arrhythmia is recorded at absolutely healthy people, most often observed in children and adolescents during puberty.It is associated with a reflex effect on the vagus and sympathetic nerves swings in intrathoracic pressure occurring during inhalation and exhalation.
noncyclic sinus arrhythmia may occur in the absence of organic changes in the sinus node, as a manifestation of neuro dystonia.But more often spasmodic occurrence of pulses due to the degenerative processes occurring in the sinus node.The most common causes of organic changes are the following diseases:
- myocardial infarction;
- rheumatic heart disease;
- overdose of cardiac glycosides.
As a rule, the presence of sinus arrhythmia does not cause any human feelings, so in most cases complaints are absent.Sometimes it can be marked sense of palpitations or fade, mild discomfort in the heart.The heart rate increases and decreases periodically.
When respiratory arrhythmia, there is a clear connection between the frequency pulse with inhalation and exhalation.After a long breath or a few deep breaths as possible arrhythmias disappear.Recovery rate is also observed after physical or emotional stress and administration of atropine and other drugs which depress the parasympathetic innervation.
An objective examination can not detect pathological changes other than minor spasmodic heart sounds, their power and sonority does not change.Hemodynamic indices are within the normal range.If arrhythmias occurred against a background of organic changes in the heart, then come to the fore symptoms which appeared to cause them.Diagnosis of sinus arrhythmia is not present any difficulties.The main method of study in such conditions is electrocardiography.
How does heart cardiogram with sinus arrhythmia?
electrocardiogram is sometimes the only method that allows to identify a person sinus arrhythmia.For the diagnosis of sinus arrhythmia cardiogram remove enough in standard leads.Deciphering ECG based on the identification of the characteristic symptoms of sinus arrhythmia:
- presence of sinus rhythm.P wave is present in all leads, always positive in II and negative in aVR leads, electric axis is within the limits of age norm.The other leads P may be positive, two-phase and sometimes negative.It depends on the position of EOS;
- periodic changes in R-R interval greater than 0.1 seconds, often depending on the respiration phase, thus, extremely rarely, after a short interval of the longest recorded immediately.Intervals between the R wave at physiological arrhythmia lengthen and shorten smoothly.When rhythm disturbances resulting from organic disorders, may experience abrupt changes in the duration of R-R intervals, which may exceed 0.15 seconds;
- disappearance of the difference in the duration of R-R intervals at a delay of breath on breath, observed in children and adolescents.Older people have violations with a single breath is usually preserved.
Moderately severe sinus arrhythmia on the ECG in children under 14 years of age is normal and does not require treatment.As a rule, they do not need and any treatment and adults, except in cases where the cause is organic heart disease.