Arrhythmia - what is it and how is it dangerous?Symptoms and treatment of disease
Disease / / August 12, 2017
- What is an arrhythmia?
- Causes Symptoms Types
- The dangerous arrhythmia arrhythmia?
- Arrhythmias in certain categories of patients
- Diagnostics arrhythmias
- Recommendations for Treatment of arrhythmia
What is an arrhythmia?
arrhythmia - a change in heart rate, or the regularity of their correct sequence.
heart is made of muscle tissue and systems, conducting nerve impulses.Their correct and coordinated work is controlled by the autonomic nervous system.Abnormalities in any of these links lead to the development of arrhythmias.
Possible causes are manifold:
- heart disease: coronary heart disease, various defects, myocarditis;
- endocrine disorders: hyperthyroidism, adrenal gland tumor;
- a connective tissue disease, such as systemic sclerosis;
- pathology of the nervous system: stroke, autonomic dysfunction;
- intoxication: nicotine, alcohol, and certain medications;This may also include the frequent use of strong brewed tea and coffee;
- psychogenic arrhythmia caused by stressful situations, physical activity;
- change ratio of electrolytes, primarily calcium, potassium and magnesium;
- diseases of the digestive system: gallstone disease, peptic ulcer disease;
- genetically determined syndromes (premature ventricular syndrome).
Manifestations rhythm changes can either be completely unnoticeable to the patient, or have quite tangible signs:
- palpitations, interruptions;
- acceleration or deceleration of the pulse;
- sense of fading heart;
- occur in disorders of blood flow dizziness may be episodes of loss of consciousness.
rhythm disturbances can be permanent and can occur in the form of paroxysms.This arrhythmia attack occurs suddenly and as suddenly stopped.
Types of arrhythmia
Rhythm disorders can be divided into two groups.
Arrhythmias, due to changes in the formation of an electrical pulse:
- Sinus tachycardia: the number of heart rate above 90 beats per minute, with the right rhythm.
- Sinus bradycardia: the number of heartbeats per minute less than 59, the right rhythm.
- Sinus arrhythmia - irregular rhythm, characterized by periods of increased frequency and deceleration.
- sick sinus syndrome - in these patients observed persistent bradycardia, even during exercise.Periodically there are bouts of tachycardia.
- Extrasystole due to premature heart extraordinary excitement.The rhythm remains normal.Maybe ventricular and supraventricular.
- Paroxysmal tachycardia - a sudden increase in heart attack up to 220 ppm and above, which also stops abruptly.As beats distinguish supraventricular and ventricular paroxysmal tachycardia.
- Atrial flutter - too frequent contractions of the atria (up to 200-400 per minute) with saved regular atrial rhythm.
- Atrial fibrillation (atrial fibrillation) - appears frequently (up to 700 per minute), random excitation and a reduction in the individual areas of the atria.ventricular contraction and irregular, but less frequency - 90-140 per minute.
- Flickering and ventricular fibrillation - a very serious condition that requires the use of resuscitation.
Arrhythmias arising in the conduction abnormalities.Among them are distinguished:
- Blockade.Depending on the level can be - sinuauricular, intraatrial, atrioventricular, intraventricular.Clinically blockade may not occur and be discovered at the electrocardiographic study.There may be weakness, dizziness, shortness of breath, a rare heart.
- Asystole Ventricular - no abbreviations, full cardiac arrest.As usually develops in severe lesions of the heart, accompanied by progressive circulatory disorders.
- Syndrome of premature ventricular excitation - is characterized by premature ventricular contractions, and the development of tachycardia episodes.One-third of patients have no clinical manifestations and detected by electrocardiography.It refers to congenital diseases.
should also mention a term such as respiratory arrhythmia.In this state, the heart rate quickens to breath and becomes less as you exhale.Clinical manifestations are not present.It occurs mainly in childhood, does not require treatment.
The dangerous arrhythmia?
Arrhythmias can degrade the quality of life significantly limit normal physical activity.
Serious violations require treatment in order to maintain adequate hemodynamics and prevention of complications.
consequences could be very severe:
- blood clots in the heart cavities, followed by thromboembolism, possible ischemic stroke;
- frequent loss of consciousness due to brain power deficit;
- pulmonary edema, accompanied by difficulty breathing, shortness of breath;
- development of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter;
- cardiac arrest.
Arrhythmias in certain categories of patients
- Arrhythmias in children.The reason may be the children's infections, accompanied by dehydration and, consequently, a violation of water-electrolyte metabolism.The effect on the development of arrhythmias have during pregnancy and childbirth.The manifestations are usually non-specific and the presence of an arrhythmia is detected during the inspection of the dispensary.It is worth paying attention to the appearance of shortness of breath in a child with little exertion, you can change the color in the nasolabial triangle, strong pulsation of neck vessels.Older children may complain of weakness, dizziness, and chest discomfort.
- Arrhythmias in pregnancy.Pregnant happening significant hormonal changes the body, which leads to more frequent occurrence of arrhythmias is during pregnancy.Usually it is different beats or paroxysmal tachycardia.In the absence of hemodynamic these arrhythmias do not require medical treatment.A completely different situation when a tahisistolicheskoy atrial fibrillation, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia.These arrhythmias may adversely affect not only the mother well-being, but also on the condition of the fetus.In both cases, the help of experts.
- Arrhythmias often occur in women postmenopausal.As a rule, manifest appearance of extrasystoles and respond well to treatment with tranquilizers.
accurate and rapid method for determining the type of arrhythmia is an electrocardiogram - a method of recording the bioelectric activity of the heart.When conducting an electrocardiogram can be determined:
- mechanism of arrhythmias: a violation of the formation of rhythm or pulse;
- heart rate;
- localization of the source of violations;
- assess the ECG changes in dynamics.
In the case of infrequent arrhythmias used ECG monitoring.A patient is placed a portable apparatus for recording an electrocardiogram and record performance during the day.
Recommendations for arrhythmia
the presence of arrhythmias, it is desirable to adhere to certain rules:
- limit the use of strong coffee, tea, alcohol;
- smoking cessation;
- prevent stressful situations;
- control blood pressure;
- weight loss.
Can I play sports, if there is an arrhythmia?It is advisable to discuss this issue directly with the doctor, as heart failure and hemodynamic instability may be from the most minimal to the decompensated state.However, moderate physical exercise will be quite acceptable for the improvement of the heart and blood vessels.
arrhythmia treatment appointed cardiologist.
- Medication.There are 4 classes of antiarrhythmic drugs, which have certain indications and contra-indications.Mainly used amiodarone, propafenone, and sotalol.Furthermore, prescribed therapy comorbidities.
- Surgical methods.If there is a high degree of blockades need to install a pacemaker.When arrhythmias with high frequency reductions are successfully used radiofrequency ablation method - removal of the hearth, sending abnormal nerve impulses.