Encephalopathy in children : Symptoms and Treatment
Disease / / August 12, 2017
- Encephalopathy - what it is, the mechanism of its development
- symptoms of encephalopathy
- Consequences in adulthood
- Treatment encephalopathy
Encephalopathy - that issuch a mechanism of its development
translated from the Latin term encephalopathy refers to brain disease.It defines a large group of diseases is not an inflammatory nature, which are accompanied by a violation of brain function.Under the effect of damaging the death of neurocytes occurs factor (br
polyetiological Encephalopathy is a disease, that is, to its development causes a lot of reasons.Therefore secrete several kinds of pathologies depending on the groups of the reasons that led to its development:
- vascular encephalopathy - is a consequence of insufficient brain perfusion (ischemia) for various cardiovascular diseases.
- Venous (circulatory) encephalopathy - neurocytes damaged due to the stagnation of blood in the brain, when it is insufficient venous drainage.
- Post-traumatic encephalopathy - a result of undergoing a head injury (traumatic brain, birth trauma at the complex during childbirth), in which a significant amount of damaged neurons.
- Perinatal encephalopathy in newborns - the impact of causal factors in the brain occurs in the last weeks of pregnancy or during labor.The causes of this type of pathology are many, chief among them - a difficult birth with asphyxia (suffocation) fetal, maternal infections, which are transmitted to the child and injure his neurocytes.
- Residual encephalopathy - seen in older children as a consequence neyroinfektsy, injury or other damaging effects on the brain in the perinatal period.
- leukoencephalopathy of vascular origin - in connection with a violation of brain power is the destruction of membranes of nerve fibers (demyelination) with severe breakdown in communication between the neurocytes.
- small focal leukoencephalopathy with progressive - develops after neyroinfektsy or malfunction of the immune system.
- Toxic encephalopathy - the result of the brain poisonous (toxic) compounds as a result of neonatal jaundice (increased bilirubin entering the blood from the liver).
- Hypertensive encephalopathy - neurocytes damaged due to increased systemic blood pressure.
- Wernicke encephalopathy - a consequence of inadequate intake of B vitamins
Children often can not identify the precise causative factor of brain pathology in these cases are diagnosed idiopathic (unspecified) encephalopathy.
symptoms of encephalopathy
Practically in all types of this disease of the brain in children develops corresponding characteristic symptoms, which includes such basic manifestations:
- Headache - it may complain about the older children havechildren up to, she manifested a constant anxiety, tearfulness, poor appetite and sleep.
- Insomnia - disturbed sleep is especially pronounced when the toxic form of disease, with the development of inversion of sleep (insomnia at night and sleepiness during the day).
- memory impairment - impaired short-term memory, a child does not remember the numbers, words, objects.
- Reduced cognitive activity of the child and intelligence - is expressed in the lack of interest in the games and the world around them.
- Phobias - panicky fear of an object or phenomenon of the environment, the most frequent arachnophobia (fear of spiders), claustrophobia (fear of enclosed spaces).
- In children under the age of 1 month can develop hydrocephalus - an increase in brain volume and head as a result of violation of the outflow of venous blood and cerebrospinal fluid.
severity and the combination of symptoms varies depending on the degree of disturbances in the brain and the causal factors that led to the development of pathology.
Consequences in adulthood
Encephalopathy in children is a violation of brain development, leading to significant consequences in adult life, these include:
- paralysis or paresis (violation of movements of individual muscle groups);
- decline in memory and intellect;
- violation of the emotional sphere, with periodic change of normal mood depression;
to determine the cause of encephalopathy, the severity of the changes in the brain uses different methods of instrumental examination of the child - a computer or magnetic resonance tomography, electroencephalography, neurosonography.
therapy of this pathological state of the brain is a complex and challenging.It is aimed at the speedy elimination of the cause (if possible) and maximum recovery of damaged neurocytes.For this purpose such actions and remedies:
- application of neuroprotective agents - drugs that restore and prevent further damage to the neurocytes (piracetam, tiotsetam).
- B vitamins - help improve the metabolism (metabolism) in neurocytes.
- Vascular drugs to improve blood circulation and outflow of venous blood - is the prevention of possible future damage neurocytes (cavinton).
- Sedatives and tranquilizers - to reduce elevated impulses in damaged neurocytes (sibazon).
- mode, including outdoor exercise, balanced nutrition, physiotherapy and medical gymnastics.
success in the treatment of encephalopathy depends on the amount of damaged neurocytes.In most cases it is possible almost completely cure this pathology without further consequences in adult life.Children with such disorders after the initial phase of treatment are under the supervision of a neurologist, which controls the further development of the nervous system.
12 Aug, 2017