Bronchial asthma : classification, causes, treatment
Disease / / August 12, 2017
- What is bronchial asthma (BA)?
- causes of asthma
- How does an asthma attack?
- Symptoms Diagnosis of asthma
- Emergency aid for attack
- treatment of asthma: basic therapy
What is bronchial asthma (BA)?
asthma - a chronic disease characterized by recurrent and manifested by periodic attacks of breathlessness, arising from exposure to various substances that cause allergic reactions.
causes of asthma
atopic asthma develops due to such factors as:
- Working with harmful substances.
- exudative diathesis in children.
- presence of allergic diseases.
Heredity. During the research it was found that there are certain genes responsible for the seve
Working with harmful substances. Asthma in children is more common among those whose parents worked in conditions harmful production.In addition, the mother transferred viral infections during pregnancy can also trigger an attack udushyau child's first year of life.
exudative diathesis and other allergic conditions also increase the likelihood that asthma may develop in the future baby.
If a person is already suffering from asthma, it can trigger asthma attack:
- infectious allergens - bacteria, fungi, viruses;
- meteorological factors - humidity, changes in temperature and atmospheric pressure, magnetic storms;
- noncommunicable allergens - industrial, medical, pollen, insects, and animals (dander, saliva, ticks particles);
- dust and chemicals - fumes, acid vapors, metal dust and the like);
- stress and other psychological disorders.
How does an asthma attack?
spasm and suffocation are developing due to the interaction with the histamine receptors of the bronchi muscle cells - histamine released from mast cells by allergen.Tendency to spasm of the bronchi, to some extent subordinate to the biological clock and, according to some researchers, most pronounced in the 4 and 8 am and midnight.In patients with asthma susceptibility to obstruction may be enhanced under the influence of cold air (cold asthma), exercise (asthma physical exertion), taking certain medicines, such as aspirin (aspirinovakya asthma).
atopic asthma occurs due to the interaction of the body to allergens, causing the first type of hypersensitivity reaction - pollen, fungal spores, animal and vegetable proteins, drugs sredstvami.Odnovremenno this appear delayed-type hypersensitivity, causing the body formedcirculating immune complexes.With the passage of time due to various factors a partial change in the structure of tissues bronchopulmonary system that leads to the formation of endogenous type allergens, exacerbating the disease.
Another mechanism of bronchial asthma - hormonal changes: a decrease of progesterone or glucocorticoid hormone deficiency, as well as the high content of estrogen increase the risk of asthma.It is believed that the primary mechanism of action in this case - the elimination of the deterrent effect of hormones on mast cells, leading to their hyperactivity and increased histamine levels in the blood.
not the last role in the progression of the occurrence of asthma plays the nervous system, autoimmune processes in the body, the appearance of endogenous allergens, as well as various types of infectious diseases, including chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis.
According stages of AD distinguish the following stages:
- practically healthy person, but he has a predisposition to asthma.
- predastmy (meets not always).
- Clinically significant asthma (considered to be the first asthma attack).
By the nature of the flow to distinguish between 4 degrees of asthma:
- I stepen- intermittent flow, asthma attacks are rare, in between attacks the patient's general state of health does not suffer.Night choking occurs no more than twice per month.
- II degree - for mild persistent, characterized by the appearance of choking more than 1 time per week, including more than 2 times per month, per night.
- III degree - moderate asthma, nocturnal attacks occur several times a week, and a day - every day.
- IV degree - severe asthma, which forces to take systemic and inhaled hormone preparations.Often accompanied by the appearance of status asthmaticus.
predastmy. is believed that in a state predastmy is up to 10% of the population of developed countries.At this stage, the patient may experience any obstructive bronchitis or allergic nature of the disease.At the same time against the background of allergies in adults general condition is often aggravated by smoking, the presence of factors of production hazards.Attacks obstructive bronchitis are well cropped drugs from the group of sympathomimetics.
Asthma. Symptoms of asthma in the initial period are manifested in the form of ordinary coughing, which occurs after contact with an allergen or at night (so-called cough form).However, in most cases, there is a characteristic of asthma shortness of breath that accompanies any attack obstruction (a hard breath, the patient is trying to do it with effort).At the time of the attack of suffocation when light listening through stethoscope auscultated multiple dry wheezing, which can be heard even at a distance.However, this picture is sometimes observed when obstructive bronchitis, so that obligatory differential diagnosis of these diseases.
himself attack includes 3 consecutive stages:
- height; reverse development
Forerunners observed for some time (in days, minutes) prior to the attack of breathlessness.Patients at this time are possible: vasomotor rhinitis, dryness in the nasal cavity, difficulty sputum discharge, recurrent shortness of breath.
The height of the attack: the feeling of lack of air, the person receives the forced position (sitting, with an emphasis on hands knees), is involved in the act of breathing more muscles, there is retraction of intercostal spaces.Exhale long enough, are made with the patient effort.Depending on the duration of the symptoms of an attack lack of oxygen can occur in this period in the body (hypoxia).
reverse development Stage: signs of dyspnea and wheezing gradually disappear, breathing leveled.
asthmatic status - this is the same attack, but continues for a long time.It is characterized by more severe when asthma progresses, the growing oxygen deficiency symptoms.Without emergency pomoschipatsient may die.
In most cases, asthma diagnosis presents no particular difficulties.Diagnosis is based on patient complaints, the study of its history of the disease, as well as the data of the primary medical examination and subsequent in-depth survey, including:
- chest radiography;
- allergy tests (detection of allergens causing asthma);
- other types of laboratory and instrumental investigations.
Emergency aid for attack
cupping.In the event of an attack of breathlessness should be possible to avoid contact with the allergen (eg, if you are allergic to pollen, the conduct of man in the room with the windows closed and the door), and then you need to take medication, dilates the bronchi - salbutamol or its analogs (can be repeatedinhalation several times).you must call the "ambulance" With the ineffectiveness of these measures.
treatment of asthma: basic therapy
preparations of basic therapy - is mostly inhalers reduce inflammation and preventing allergic bronchospasm.These include:
- aerosol corticosteroid (budesonide and others.);
- cromolyn sodium, nedocromil;
These medications are designed for long-term use and are not docked already begun the attack.Special care should be taken in choosing a means of basic therapy if pregnancy.In the absence of the effect of the above means of systemic hormones, such as prednisone can be assigned.
At home, in addition to these drugs are recommended:
- hypoallergenic diet (nutrition is particularly important in the case of cross-allergies, as well as in case of asthma attacks in response to the consumption of certain products).
- exercise therapy, massage.
- Breathing exercises.
As a rule, the exclusive treatment of folk remedies are ineffective, so it can be used only on doctor's advice, and in combination with drugs.It aims at facilitating the general condition and comprises reception of various herbal remedies.