Rectal cancer : symptoms
Disease / / May 30, 2016
- Pathogenesis and cancers
- Symptoms of colorectal cancer
Pathogenesis and cancers
main pathogenetic mechanism of development of cancer is genetic degeneration (mutation) of normal cells.At the same time they have a number of properties:
- Increased metabolism - degradation of organic compounds with the release of energy occurs several times more intense than in normal cells.Active
- division - the tumor cells with a sufficient amount of energy divided every 20 minutes and progressively increasing the size of the tumor.
- Production of biologically active compounds which stimulate the growth of blood vessels in tumors - is an evolutionary mechanism of tumor development, by which cancer cells themselves provide sufficient oxygen and nutrients.
- active germination (penetration) in healthy tissues to their destruction.
- Metastasis - part of the cells are separated with shock lymph or blood, they migrate through the body, settle in other organs and give rise to secondary tumors (metastases).Products
- toxin - as a result of metabolism in tumor cells genetically foreign toxic products are formed which lead to intoxication.
These properties determine the heavy current, rapid progression of tumors.There are also several histological (tissue) tumor types that determine the severity of the cancer process and the subsequent prognosis:
- Adenocarcinoma - tumor develops from the glandular cells, is the most frequent type of tumor, which occurs in 75-80% of cases.
- signet ring cell carcinoma - poorly differentiated histology form, the exact origin of the tumor cells remains unknown.Under the microscope, they look like ring - a large vacuole in the center of the cells with peripheral nucleus.During this adverse neoplasms occurs in 3-4% of cases.
- Squamous cell carcinoma - the result of genetic degeneration of squamous epithelial cells lining the mucous membrane.It occurs in 2-3% of cases, it is characterized by early metastasis.
- Solid cancer - develops from the glands, poorly differentiated cancer cells, during unfavorable.
- scirrhous cancer - derived from connective tissue submucosal layer of the rectum, tumor predominant content of the intercellular substance.
- Melanoma - develops from pigment cells, which are located in the anal area, characterized by a malignant course and early metastasis (the size of the primary tumor may be very small).
Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of cancer, it is developing with equal frequency in men and women over the age of 50 years.
genetic degeneration of cells in the rectum to explain several hypotheses - parasitism oncogenic viruses (HPV), the impact of adverse physical factors (radiation) and carcinogens (chemicals, resulting in damage to the genetic material - benzenes, aniline dyes).Contributing factors are heredity, diet with high content of animal fats, increased body weight, low physical activity, smoking and regular alcohol intake.
Symptoms of colorectal cancer
symptoms development in colorectal cancer depends on the size of a tumor, its growth in the healthy tissue and the presence of metastases.These factors are determined by the current stage of the cancer process:
- -Size Stage 1 tumors are small, it does not grow into healthy tissue and prevents metastasis, so the symptoms are virtually non-existent;
- Stage 2 - the tumor increases in size, grows into the surrounding healthy tissue of the rectum and allows single lymph node metastases.There are the first signs of disease - the appearance of discharge from the rectum, feces contains blood veins may appear pus and mucus, the development of dyspeptic syndrome (unstable chair, periodic bloating), urinary gases periodic urgency to the act of defecation;
- Stage 3 - cancerous tumor has a considerable size, appear isolated distant metastases in other organs.At this stage of developing pain in the rectum, which increases during defecation.Secretions become intense, be profuse bleeding (the result of major damage to the vessel walls).Increased inguinal lymph nodes, when you try to test the observed pain;
- 4 stage - is characterized by a large number of metastases in different organs, develops cancerous intoxication (absorption of a large number of malignant cells of waste products in the blood system), which is shown marked man losing weight up to cachexia (wasting).Pain may be present not only in rectum but also in other parts of the body where there are metastases.The pain is intense, excruciating, constant.
Depending on what stage of the process flow of Cancer treatment was started, depends on the subsequent prognosis.The most optimal is the radical surgical removal of the tumor at stage 1, when yet its germination in healthy tissue and metastasis.Started treatment step 2 does not guarantee the absence of recurrence of the tumor, however, survival after removal of the tumor and surrounding metastasis is greater than 5 years.At 3 and 4 stage symptomatic treatment, chemotherapy and radiation therapy to reduce the rate of development of oncologic process.