Determination of allergy
The List Of Diseases / / August 12, 2017
Allergies are nothing else but a disproportionately increased reactivity.This is the most common definition, because the disease mechanisms in many cases remain unexplained.
Underlying allergy is hypersensitivity and inadequate reaction to certain substances of the environment, harmless to most people.These substances causing allergies and called "allergens", can be either natural or chemical origin.It was they who cause a disproportionate reaction of the immune system, penetrating into the body by breathing, digestion, or direct contact with skin.
allergic reaction associated with the immune system, which is an aggregate of cells circulating in blood, as well as members of the various organs.The immune system is given a very important role, since it comes from the first signal of the introduction of alien elements in the body, that it will organize its defense.Reaction of its cells called "immune response".Because detected dangerous for the organism bacteria or viruses - the perpetrators of various in
However, in some cases, the immune response causes serious problems, including death.A typical example is the disease of autoimmune origin, in which the immune system of the organism takes the components of foreign elements, and comes into the fight with them (as often happens when rheumatism).Complications also occur in people who have undergone surgery to organ transplants, due to the fact that their immune system transplant qualifies as a foreign element and fights with him until the rejection that can occur if you do not take special medications that eliminate the negative effects.
Finally, the allergy is another, and perhaps the most common case of an inadequate immune response.Under normal circumstances, the immune system acts as a caretaker who is always alert and ready to repel any external implementation.However, a person suffering from allergies, it reacts violently to unduly quite harmless substances, taking them as dangerous and contributing to the development of the pathological process, is difficult to not only treat, but also diagnosis.
ancient disease that has modern history
Despite the fact that allergic disease may seem to us today, it has a long prehistory.
- In the V century BC.e.one of the Pharaohs of ancient Egypt died of a wasp sting.Hippocrates gives data about the people for whom the cheese is the product of a "hostile" inconsistent with their body.Even in our era, in the XVI century, the Roman Cardinal Olivieri Caraffi forbade start to his people with a bouquet of roses due to the fact that these flowers caused him discomfort.
- However, it took another four centuries before doctors began to consider the usual allergy disease, although aware of its mysterious origins.In 1903, pediatricians Clemens van Pirket and Bela Schick attacked on the right path of research, put forward the postulate that the cause of the disease, which they called "allergy", lies in the formation of antibodies which instead of protecting the body, attacking his cells,thereby causing harm.
- year later, Charles Richet and Paul Portier proved that if the dog enter the poison of sea anemones once, it will not cause her any harm, the introduction of triple would be fatal.They named this phenomenon anaphylaxis or lack of protection.Subsequently, their discovery was very helpful to scientists, and in 1913 Charles Richet received the Nobel Prize for it.
- In 1996, the Swede Gunnar Johansson and Japanese couple Kimishige Terukov Ishizaka and simultaneously discovered that the antibody allergy is an immunoglobulin class E (IgE).
Since not terminated study secrets of this unusual autoimmune disease, aimed at studying its causes and methods of prevention.
Using simple scientific terms, we try to explain some biological processes occur in the body, which has become a victim of an allergy.
basic cells that comprise our immune system are macrophages and T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes.When they come into contact with a substance that our organism perceives as a foreign (or allergenic), then initiate the process of creating special molecules called "immunoglobulin» (Ig) or antibodies.These molecules attach themselves to the allergen, and in all ways seek to destroy and destroy.
human immune system, allergy sufferer, produces Ig at the first contact with the allergen, but allergy symptoms only when the amount exceeds the permitted limit, that is, between the first meeting with the allergen and allergic reaction may take some time.When the concentration of Ig exceeds the limit, then each subsequent contact with an allergen, in whatever small amount he did not, causing allergy symptoms.Here is an explanation of the fact that one day we suddenly react to an attack of asthma or eczema on the substance, which previously coexisted peacefully or usually ate inside.
immunoglobulin produced by the body in response to some allergen, and responds solely to this particular allergen specific called immunoglobulin (IgE), and can be of different kinds.If both are produced different kinds of IgE, a person will have an allergic reaction to some substances.In addition, possible cross reactions, when the same kind of IgE responds to external stimuli such as, for example, mites living in dust, and seafood.In the presence of allergy to dust is likely to be allergic to seafood, since in fact, and in another case is a protein allergen tropomyosin, and it causes an allergic reaction.That is why, despite the apparent difference between these substances, the symptoms are the same.
immunoglobulins (or antibodies) formed in the body in five varieties: IgG , IgA , IgM , IgD and IgE .However, only IgE associated with most allergies, including asthma.
Seize and destroy
Produced by the body IgE attached to mast cells (mast cells) release histamine and other substances, including the mechanism of allergy.Mast cells are present in large quantities in the cells of the loose connective tissue of the nasal cavity, eyes, lungs and gastrointestinal tract.IgE antibodies cling to the surface of mast cells, waiting for their corresponding allergen appears to "grab" it.With the penetration of the allergen into the body IgE draws it to itself to form a compound similar to a key in the keyhole, and gives the signal mast cells: highlight foreign body histamine.This hormone (histamine) causes redness, swelling and excessive isolation on the skin and mucous membranes.Such phenomena can exacerbate asthma, diarrhea, rhinitis or urticaria, in accordance with the area, where the organism to fight the allergen.
Depending on the type of allergen and the method of contact with him immune system response can range from mild to dangerous.Although most allergic reactions occur easily enough, there are some which can result in death, such as anaphylactic shock.
All people are exposed to many substances that are potential allergens.However, most people get along with them without any signs of allergy due to the mild reaction of the body's immune system to the substance, that is not to exceed the norm limit.
contrast, the human organism susceptible to allergy to some substance, in contact with it responds to it excessively.Worst of all is that for the emergence of their allergies rather negligible amounts of the allergen.
What is the histamine?
Histamine - a biogenic compound, the mediator of an allergic reaction, which is a tool that extends the capillaries, the initiator of the inflammatory process and an irritant.
histamine in the body is responsible for the important and useful functions, but only on condition that stands out in an appropriate amount.
Histamine regulates blood pressure and partly controls the heart's activity.It is also present in the digestive system, which regulates the secretion of gastric juice.Furthermore, in the central nervous system, it serves as a mediator of neuronal communication and performs various functions in the brain.
Only when excessive histamine release in some organ or in any area of the body occurring adverse events.And yet there is no doubt that in the body, it plays an important role, as a necessary part of its normal operation.
Usually, an allergic reaction occurs immediately upon contact with the allergen, but there are many cases where this is not the case.Substance related allergies and produced during its attack, such as histamine, not only affect body tissues, which are in, but also activates leukocytes.They, in turn, provoke a so-called a delayed allergic reaction, which symptoms a few hours after the start of the process.
In most cases, instant allergic reaction appears for about the first two hours, it causes mast cells.Delayed allergic reaction occurs six hours as a result of basophils and eosinophils that produce cytokines (interleukins, chemokines, lymphokines, monokines, interferons).In this regard, many allergists believe that a person predisposed to allergies, usually has a two-phase reaction, in other words which can be called the allergic cascade.
repeated bursts production of histamine in the body, until recently, has not been studied and confused picture when determining the allergens that cause allergic attack.This phenomenon is remarkable in that the inflammatory process is delayed for hours and cold, despite the short-term contact with an allergen, it can sometimes last for several days;due to the fact that the mucous membranes are inflamed, allergy symptoms do not disappear.This differs quickly passing from chronic runny nose.
Delayed allergic reaction is particularly dangerous for people with asthma.There were cases when after the efforts of emergency medical care, as a result of which managed to drown out the attack, he repeated with a bang soon after the return of the patient's home.The fact that the action of cytokines, causing a delayed reaction, is more powerful than that of histamine.
belated reaction leads to the fact that allergic symptoms associated with an inflammatory process becomes almost chronic, significantly complicating the treatment.In addition, it makes the person hypersensitive.If he has an allergy to the belated reaction to the mites, it is likely that external factors such as tobacco smoke, perfume or paint will cause new attacks.And it's not that he is allergic to these substances, and that due to the constant inflammation of the mucous membrane in connection with the activities of eosinophils any most insignificant stimulus may trigger a new attack.
Allergy symptoms usually appear in the form of rhinitis, eczema or asthma attack.These symptoms suggest that the immune system reacts inappropriately, causing disease.
Increasingly, however, added to the symptoms of the new ailments.Over time, with repeated collisions with allergens responsible for these illnesses, the body gradually weakened and complicated course of allergy.
This phenomenon occurs in persons originally suffering from eczema, to which after some time joined rhinitis symptoms.That is an allergy spread throughout the body, not limited to one only manifestation.The most common cases in which rhinitis complicated with asthma.
is therefore extremely important to determine what allergens react persons and to take measures to protect his health, preferring natural remedies.
disease that progresses.As we have seen, allergy reason lies not in any particular matter, and in man, a genetic predisposition to excessive response of the immune system to repeated contact with certain substances which are harmless to many people, but have the potential to cause a defensive reaction of the organism.
Currently, more than 15% of the population is allergic to any particular substance, but in most cases - a few factors.
There is no clear explanation of the reasons for excessive response in some people, though, appears to be an important role in this is played by heredity.Characteristic that is inherited not the allergy is transmitted, and a genetic predisposition to it.If one parent is allergic, then his child the likelihood of the disease is 48%.If there is such a predisposition both parents, then the probability of offspring of allergic reactions to increase to 70%.Also, allergies can occur at any age.There are cases when a person older than 40 years, once started sneezing, initially attributed it to a cold, but after a few weeks convinced that turned to allergy sufferers.
In any case, the exceptional role played by the emotional state of the person.There are cases of asthma as a result of stress, depression or a crisis situation;rhinitis may develop on the basis of fear;anxiety and stress aggravate atopic dermatitis and food intolerance.In order to achieve harmony is very important to protect the body and the inner emotional world, and that we can be very helpful natural treatments.
Every year, allergy sufferers becoming more
Currently in Spain one in five people suffers from an allergy.It is calculated that by 2020, the disease take over half the country's population.In this connection, the doctors - allergists apply to the Ministry of Health with the requirement to increase the number of specialists.
newspaper "El Progreso" (24 October 2004)
12 Aug, 2017