The immune system and allergies
The List Of Diseases / / August 12, 2017
Its function is similar to the mission of the knight-errant, or a kind host, protecting the body against external enemies.
immune system - a set of cells, tissues and organs of the body performing the function of protection from aggressive environmental factors (including foreign bodies such as bacteria, viruses, fungi and chemical particles) (detail in the article elements of the immune system).If the immune system is in good condition, the body recognizes the potentially dangerous substances and reacts up to their destruction.Immune system clearly identifies the body's own cells, to prevent their damage at the time of commissioning of protective mechanisms.
Which bodies are part of the immune system?
bodies that are part of the immune system, called lymphoid.They affect the growth, development and release of antibodies and white blood cells - lymphocytes.
Blood and lymphatic vessels are an important part of the lymphoid organs, as delivered to cells in different parts of the body.Each lymphoid or
- adenoids - glandular growths on caudineural wall of the nasopharynx.
- appendix - an appendage of the cecum.
- blood vessels - arteries, veins and capillaries through which blood circulates.
- Bone marrow - the soft tissue with a predominance of fatty tissue that fills the cavities of bones.
- lymph nodes ( "glands") - small organs located along the lymph vessels of the body.
- Lymphatic vessels - transport routes on which there is an outflow of lymph from the organs and tissues in the venous system.
- Peyer's patches - clusters of lymphoid tissue in the small intestine.
- Spleen - the largest lymphoid organ located in the abdomen.
- Thymus (thymus) - consists of two lobes located in the upper part of the chest just behind the breastbone.
How does the immune system?
Each cell has its own characteristics, in which the immune system recognizes it.When some foreign element (antigen) enters the body, immediately followed by an immune response, and begins to develop antibodies - white balls whose function is to drive out or destroy the item.
This protection is not carried out by one body, but a coordinated activity of the brain, endocrine glands, skin, bone marrow, hormones, neurotransmitters (transmitter) and a large number of antibodies.
When the body enters a foreign element, antibodies explore its characteristics.Each antibody recognizes one of their characteristics, and notifies phagocytes - white balls of another type, present in the blood.From this point on phagocytes begin to destroy foreign body membrane by enzymes it is crushed and absorb.
In the case of the invasion of a large number of viruses or bacteria cells-backs give the signal transmitters: to send to the aid of other types of white balls - white blood cells that protect special kind.We are talking about T-lymphocytes (produced by the thymus) and B lymphocytes (produced by the bone marrow), which combines with the aggressor cells begin to multiply in large numbers.The objective is to destroy the enemy first, while the latter are transformed into antibody (IgG), which play a fundamental role in the allergic response in the case of turning them into specific immunoglobulin (IgE).
When all processes in the body are balanced, that includes restraining mechanisms - the cells that "calm" the defenders, so they do not destroy healthy cells.Allergies - If the B-lymphocytes are unable to control the situation, the immune reaction begins.
If the immune system wins the fight, the defenders kletki register these substances aggressor and put them back in your memory so that when a new attack these foreign elements corresponding antibodies are generated quickly, and thus managed to overcome the disease before it develops.In the case of an allergen there is the same: each new attack it causes intense production of IgE.
The immune system is responsible for a variety of processes.As described above, it not only provides protection against penetration from outside infections, but its characteristics and registers thus generated immunity.The extent and duration of body resistance depends on the type and amount of antigen which was a struggle, and ways of its penetration into the body.Innate immunity
form protective barriers, creating involving skin, special release in the oral cavity, urinary system and the eye surface.Immunity is also formed in the transmission of antibodies from mother to child.
Acquired immunity is produced in the process of ingestion of specific infectious agents (including toxins and alien biomaterial), which is fighting and who remembers the immune system.An example is the measles.Whenever the body is exposed to pathogens measles naturally or through vaccination, the immune system produces antibodies specific.Repeated collision with the infection the immune system deploys a more intensive production of specific antibodies to fight disease and maintain health.
immune system dysfunction
diseases occur in violation of the immune system, which are divided into three types.The first type is an autoimmune disease in which there is destruction of the body's organs and tissues by its own immune system, which normally is designed to recognize and destroy the alien structure.This reaction is the cause of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis or multiple sclerosis.
second type of diseases associated with immune deficiency.With weakened immunity decreases resistance to alien structures.Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) refers to a group of diseases.
The third type includes allergic diseases, which are the subject of a detailed study this section.