The first signs and treatment of gonorrhea in men
Disease / / August 12, 2017
- mechanism of development and causes
- Symptoms of gonorrhea
- Treatment of gonorrhea
mechanism of development and causes
gonorrhea - gonococcus (Neisseriagonorrhoeae) is a Gram-negative (when paintingsmear Gram these bacteria are stained pink) spherical bacterium cells with a shape similar to beans.Due to the fact that these organisms in smears are grouped in pairs (two bacteria under the same capsule), they are diplococci.In the external environment diplokokki gonorrhea are unstable, quickly perish from the drying effects of the sun's rays.Also they are sensitive to boiling and disinfectant solutions (chloramines, hydrogen peroxide, bleach).Therefore, the
bacterial cells in the genital tract or urethra, they are using microvilli (drinking) attached to the mucosa and form colonies therein.The immune system reacts to an increase in macrophage cells parasitism bacteria.However, the presence of the capsule provides protection from bacteria phagocytosis (absorption and destruction) by macrophages.Phagocytosis thus becomes incomplete, gonococcal diplococci located inside the cells of the immune system, and they do not die.Due to these features the main manifestation of gonorrhea in men is the formation of a large amount of pus is composed of dead phagocytes and viable bacteria.
Symptoms of gonorrhea
main manifestation of gonorrhea is a discharge of pus from the urethra and reproductive tract.The first symptoms appear 3-7 days after infection, and include:
- appearance of the mucus of the urethra, which in a few days is replaced by pus (viscous liquid, yellow or yellow-green);
- discomfort in the urethra - such sensations have the nature of burning, itching;
- pain during urination (dysuria) - it stimulates the appearance of movement of urine in the urethra, which is irritating to sensitive mucosal inflammation;
- pallakiuriya - more frequent urination, with a small quantity of urine.
These symptoms are more typical for gonorrhea in men.For women, the disease is characterized by the frequent absence of symptoms.Chronic gonorrhea develops quite often, when it displays the minimum severity of the disease or not.There are 2 types of the current pathology:
- Primary chronic course - due to the nature of the human body (reduced activity of the immune reactivity ifunktsionalnoy) or properties of gonorrhea pathogens during the initial contact with the pathogen into the urethra or genital tract clinical symptoms do not develop.
- acute chronic course of gonorrhea - is usually over a consequence of incorrect or incomplete antimicrobial therapy.
In chronic course of disease, due to low intensity or absence of symptoms, for it is an important diagnostic laboratory testing.
based on primary diagnosis is microscopic examination.For this is taken swab for gonorrhea, which is stained by Gram.The presence of gram-negative diplococci in it that can be placed inside the macrophage, is the basis for diagnosis.In doubtful cases, particularly in chronic course and a small amount of bacterial cells is further performed bacteriological examination (inoculation of special nutrient medium, followed by culture of microorganisms identification) and serological blood test (determination of increasing titer of specific antibodies to the causative agent of gonorrhea).
Treatment of gonorrhea
therapeutic interventions for gonorrhea is primarily aimed at the destruction of the pathogen.For this purpose, several groups of antibiotics, which include:
- semisynthetic penicillins - have bactericidal activity (kill bacterial cells by inhibiting the synthesis of the cell wall).These drugs are used most frequently, these include Amoxil, Amoxiclav, Amoxicillin.Cephalosporins
- - principle of operation is the same as that of the semi-synthetic penicillins, but these means have rarely develops bacterial resistance.For the treatment of gonorrhea using intramuscular administration Ceftriaxone and Cefazolin.
- Macrolides - This group of antibiotics has activity on intracellular forms of bacteria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae concerned, which are located inside the leukocyte.Macrolides also effective against other pathogens that can cause infection in the reproductive system organs (chlamydia, mycoplasma, ureaplasma).For the treatment of gonorrhea Azithromycin is most often used.
- Tetracyclines - used to treat chronic gonorrhea in combination with other antibiotics (doxycycline).
also local antiseptics used in addition to antibiotics.gonorrhea treatment comprises washing male external genitalia in furatsilina solution (2 tablets were dissolved in 1 cup water) several times a day.Women used douching solution furatsilina, which you can add camomile tea.
treatment of acute gonorrhea held an average of 7 days.In the case of a chronic process, therapeutic interventions are performed over a long time (up to 2 weeks) with the use of several antibiotics of different pharmacological groups and local antiseptics.