Shingles : Symptoms and Treatment
Disease / / August 12, 2017
- Clinical stage
- Some atypical forms
- diseases Treatment of herpes zoster
- How to treat postherpetic neuralgia
Such a terrible name, as "shingles," is not quite rightand it stands out in a number of skin diseases for several reasons:
- unlike most skin lesions, the reasons for its other - a disease caused by a virus, and in some cases can be dangerous to others;
- disease has very distinctive features and the history of their origin, making it easier to diagnose any competent doctor or dermatologist necessarily venereal diseases;
- treatment is fundamentally different from dermatological diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, eczema and other as shingles is treated as an infectious disease;
- shingles in some cases able to leave behind the consequences of which are referred to as "postherpetic neuralgia" and the ability of many years of "poison" life, causing excruciating, burning pain that do not respond to treatment, causing insomnia, significantly reducing the quality of life.
Since contagiousness is high, the first contact usually occurs in childhood.She had been ill, the person remains a lifelong carrier of the virus, which does not leave the host organism and is able to "nap" in the nerve tissue without causing chickenpox again, but waking up with a decrease in immunity.Therefore zoster in children is rare, appearing mainly in the form of generalized infection with viremia - the chicken pox.
This occurs with colds, acute respiratory viral infection, adenovirus infection, autumn and spring cold.At the same time there is a rule: herpes zoster "jumps" only those who are ill with chickenpox child, and if a person does not hurt her, that he had herpes does not happen.It is known that in adult chicken pox is much greater than in children.Therefore, if you have never had chickenpox, it is advisable to avoid people with shingles, as all elements vysokozarazny rash, and the virus is also transmitted by airborne - droplets.
categories of patients at high risk of developing herpes zoster following:
- take such drugs as cytostatics, hormones, or undergoing radiation therapy for cancer.These drugs reduce the immune system.Patients with severe rheumatic diseases are included in this group, asthma, multiple sclerosis, organ transplant patients departments, with blood diseases and other groups.
- often catch a cold people working in the Far North, including heavy work.
- Patients with HIV - infection in clinically significant stage (AIDS).
- Also, the infection can often intensify during pregnancy, in the elderly and in old age.
incubation period for shingles is an average of 7-14 days, and during the ordinary, uncomplicated event lasts for about a month - from the first to the falling away of the last eruption of crusts and normalization of well-being.During the incubation period, the virus rapidly multiply in the ganglia - the ganglia, thus affects the posterior roots of the spinal cord, in severe cases, there is an atypical form of herpetic meningoencephalitis.
Symptoms of shingles is very evident:
- on the skin along the intercostal nerve (usually on one side), or the trigeminal (facial), or in the course of limb nerves arise first areas of skin swelling, discomfort appears,itching, feeling of "pins and needles", numbness, there are spots (erythema);
- then formed on the skin first group of nodules (papules), which are converted into groups of bubbles, or vesicles.They have clear contents and a tight, hard wall.It is concerned most of all in this period of pain.Then bubbles start to shrivel, forming a crust.After the crust completely dry up and fall off, can remain pigmentation of the skin.
Some atypical forms
- disease if the affected trigeminal nerve, the rash may appear on the eyelids and the cornea, which in some cases can lead to corneal perforation and visual impairment.In this case we speak about oftalmogerpese.
- in lesions of the facial nerve can develop his partial paralysis on one side, or paresis.This mimicry is lost, you can not shut his eyes on the affected side, the pain in the ear, dizziness, and loss of connection of hearing.
Can I wash the patient?During the bubble - until the elimination of the last crust - the patient is forbidden to moisten the affected skin and comb the rash.Unlike chickenpox, when covered with bubble rash all skin, including the scalp, with herpes zoster can be washed, provided - not wet the place of defeat.For example, with the defeat of the trigeminal nerve can not soak your head.Of course, to take a shower or bath is quite possible.
Treatment of herpes zoster
The sooner treatment is started, the greater the probability of complete cure without any - any consequences.Treatment of herpes zoster in humans involves the use of the following groups of drugs:
- Antivirals.These include such as acyclovir (Zovirax), valacyclovir (Valtrex), and others.They directly affect the cause of the disease - a virus.The most important thing - the timely start of treatment.If after the first bubble was not more than 3 days, these drugs can shorten the time of illness, reduce the intensity of the pain and reduce the risk of postherpetic neuralgia.
- Analgesics, or painkillers.Good pain relief is important, since, for example, herpes intercostal nerves each inhalation and exhalation causes very severe pain.Abroad in some cases even prescribe opioids.But the most commonly used NSAIDs: meloxicam, ketoprofen, ketorolac.When eruptions lubricate the skin it can not, therefore, recommended intramuscular or intravenous drugs.
- Local treatment includes the use of antiviral ointments and creams, lubrication rash dries and disinfectants for the prevention of joining a secondary infection (brilliant green, paint Castellani, fuchsine, Novikov liquid).
How to treat postherpetic neuralgia
- Because the virus has a special affinity for nervous tissue, and the pain that remains after leaving scars special called neuropathic.It is burning, diffuse, poorly localized, high intensity.For relief of pain using anticonvulsants, or special anticonvulsants such as gabapentin (Neurontin, Tebantin, Lyrics).These products are leading in the treatment of this complication is postherpetic neuralgia.
- In the treatment using locally irritating drugs that are based on capsaicin - an extract of cayenne pepper, for example, in the form of a patch.
- Antidepressants also significantly improve the quality of life in post-herpetic neuralgia by changing the awareness of pain, it is often reduces its intensity and duration.Used drugs such as paroxetine, fluoxetine, and others.
In conclusion, we note that shingles runs in typical cases so bright and modern therapy is initiated in a timely manner, so successful, that in most cases it is possible to achieve the complete disappearance of symptoms.Recall that a complete cure (elimination of the virus from the body) can not speak.