Antioxidants - What you should know about them
Helpful Hints / / August 12, 2017
in animals and humans oxidation processes are constantly taking place with the participation of oxygen, without which, as we know, life is impossible.However, as a result of these processes is the production of free oxygen radicals, which damage the body, contribute to the development of diseases and even, as some believe, pushing aging.Therefore, proponents of this view are trying to secure a long life, destroying the data radicals with antioxidants, or antioxidants.
Fortunately, nature provides us with food plant, endowed with a variety of natural antioxidants.They are found in fruits, vegetables and some other products.They are produced in the form of dietary supplements.
Here are the most important group of antioxidants : vitamin C;Vitamin E (tocopherol), and close to them on the chemical structure of tocotrienols;ubiquinones;vitamin A carotenoid related molecules;selenium;flavonoids;polyphenols, non-flavonoid group.Consider each.
Vitamin C. its source are vegetables, fruits, berries and ro
Vitamin E is in fruits and vegetables, bread, wheat germ, vegetable oils and fish.This vitamin is represented by a group of substances called tocopherols, denoted by Greek letters.The most powerful antioxidant among the tocopherols is gamma-tocopherol.Alpha-tocopherol is somewhat inferior to the antioxidant activity of gamma-tocopherol, but surpasses it in effect on sexual function.
Note that the antioxidant effect of tocopherols is enhanced in combination with vitamin C. It was also found that the incidence of diabetes of the second type of diabetes is lower in those whose diet had a lot of tocopherols.Appeared information and less susceptible to cancer and cardiovascular disease of people who ate foods high in vitamin E, however, this has not been confirmed in several other studies.
Ubiquinones , including those sold in pharmacies Q10, are formed in the body (most of them in the heart and liver).It is part of some dietary supplements that are used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.
By carotenoids owns a number of plant pigments of red, orange and yellow.Until recently, among them the most attention attracted by a peculiar carrots beta-carotene, because it turns into vitamin A. Now, however, appreciated and carotenoid lycopene (also the name of beta-kriptoksan- ting), which is twice the antioxidant properties of beta-carotene.The content of lycopene in foods varies greatly.Most are rich in their tomatoes.Quite a lot of antioxidants in watermelons.Lycopene present in oranges, tangerines, red bell peppers, peaches, onions, although its content is small.According to some studies, lycopene helps protect against atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease and cancer, including prostate cancer.
Another antioxidant carotenoid - lutein , or xanthophyll.Lutein and zeaxanthin are related to it are contained in yellow vegetables and fruits, as well as in dark green leafy vegetables.Good sources of zeaxanthin - corn, persimmons, spinach and pumpkin.Under its oranges, beans, eggs.US Department of Agriculture tables provide content in products in the amount of lutein to zeaxanthin carotenoid related to him.Here are some of these values (mg per 100 g):
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known experiment in which doctors gave patients first tomato juice with a carotenoid lycopene, then carrot juice with alpha- and beta-carotenes, then dry the spinach with carotenoid lyute- otherwise.Before and after such exposure examined white blood cells white blood cells.Under the influence of carotenoids reduced the number of sites in the genes damaged by penetrating into the body and formed therein with mutagens.By the way, another study revealed that the genes of an organism and protects the carotenoid zeaxanthin.
consumption of fruits and vegetables containing carotenoids lutein improves antioxidant protection and prevents the development of cataracts.The same action and noted in dietary supplements of lutein.Ophthalmologists argue that a healthy person should be 5 mg daily lutein, and at the risk of eye diseases - 7-9 mg of the substance.Incidentally, 5 mg lutein contained 0.5 kg of sweet pepper or 250 g of spinach.So much we do not eat, and therefore have to resort to bioadditives lutein to protect the eyes.
Cataracts develop as the lens with a deficiency of reduced glutathione peptide, which contribute to the maintenance of food substances such as vitamins C and E, lipoic acid, selenium.
to the carotenoid astaxanthin belongs.This is partially oxidized beta-carotene, vitamin activity lost but preserved antioxidant properties.It is formed by oceanic algae, from which it passes into the body of crab and salmon.However, when grown in fish farms to color it added to the feed Other non-ferrous material.
Selenium is an integral part of the enzyme system, also destroys the free radicals of oxygen.It is found in fish, meat, eggs, dairy and other products.
Flavonoids - it is the polyphenols, substances that contain in their molecules, several phenolic groups.These include apigenin, hesperetin, catechin, quercetin, and many others which perform a function in plants growth substances (some of them are antioxidants), as well as some colorants fruits, fruit and plant petals - antotsianidy.
sources of flavonoids - apples, onions, red wine, tea, coffee and spices.Particularly high content of flavonoids (more than 100 mg per 100 g of product) found in tea, coffee, apples and several spices.
And to the flavonoids catechin group includes substances.Katehi- us inherent in, for example, tea.They have stronger antioxidant capacity is almost 100 times than vitamin C and 25 times than vitamin E. Pleasant for tea lovers the news.
Close to catechin quercetin.In many plants, it occurs in the form of a complex substance routine.100 g of dry black tea contains about 200 mg of quercetin and green h - 224 mg.When brewing tea in 200 ml of passes respectively about 2 and 5.4 mg of quercetin.Quercetin rich apple peel (about 20 mg per 100 g), onions, especially red (33 mg), hot pepper "Chili" (14.7 mg), certain types of drain (12 mg), asparagus (12.4 mg)fennel (48 mg), cranberry (15mg), buckwheat (10-23 mg).Bees collected pollen contains about 21 mg of quercetin per 100 g, however, we must remember that the heat treatment is destroyed a significant portion of quercetin.Thus, 100 g of roasted buckwheat it remains on average only about 7 mg.
Advertise most often refers to the DHQ antioxidant properties (active supplements "Kapilar" component).According to the recommendations of the Russian scientists adult should consume daily to 250 mg of flavonoids (including 100 mg of catechins).
Related substances flavonoids, isoflavones (found in soy and soy products, and bread) are generally considered among the most powerful natural antioxidants.
The group polyphenols addition to flavonoids belong to other substances.Among them resveratrol grapes, red wine, cranberries, raspberries, bilberries, blueberries and peanuts, as well as tsirkumin contained in mustard and turmeric.Resveratrol is concentrated in the skin of red grapes.Experiments on animals have different levels of organization (from worms to mammals) have shown that resveratrol prolongs their life.There is also evidence of a beneficial effect of resveratrol on genes that protect against premature aging.
To include polyphenols and lignans (not to be confused with the lignin), abundantly represented, for example, flax seeds, flax oil, and sesame (til).Some materials combine the properties of flavonoids and lignans.This, for example, silybin, typical thistle plant and bioadditives based on it.
not cause doubts antioxidant properties of many spices, the problem is only in how these properties are manifested in the human body, will not the consumed amount of spices ineffective.
Each of the products listed above contains a characteristic for him, a set of antioxidants.To increase the variety of antioxidants in the diet, experts recommend to expand the range of intake of fruits and vegetables.It is also important the combination of antioxidants from fruits and vegetables oils antioxidants.And, of course, consumption of antioxidant foods should be sufficient.On the recommendation of the World Health Organization, a person needs to consume daily at least 400 grams of fruit and vegetables.
human consumption of food containing antioxidants, according to numerous studies to reduce the risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, macular degeneration and eye cataracts.It was found that Japanese-Americans, regularly consume fruit and vegetable juices, 4 times less ill with Alzheimer's disease compared with those who did not drink juice.This juice effect is associated with an abundance of fruits and vegetables are antioxidants.In Spain, a link between high consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables and low mortality.It is well known that the traditional diet of the inhabitants of the Mediterranean, rich in fruits, vegetables and olive oil, helps to protect against cardiovascular disease and cancer.
Unfortunately, diseases of the digestive system, liver, kidneys and other organs often make it necessary to exclude from the diet of spinach, sour berries and many other antioxidant-rich foods.Already for this reason there is interest in the consumption of antioxidants, especially selected from plant foods.In addition, supplements of antioxidants have received considerable spread in the diet of athletes, because there is a danger of gradual destruction of the body's free radical reactions during intense physical exertion.