Psychology / / August 12, 2017
Maria Montessori (1870-1952) - author of one of the most famous in the world of educational systems.
She was the first Italian woman to receive a medical degree, she worked as an assistant in a psychiatric clinic, she taught at the University of Rome, received a doctorate in philosophy.
Attention successfully held the position of scientist attracted children from the poorest neighborhoods of industrial workers in northern Italy.These children, in addition to the appalling educational neglect (to education whether it was their hard working mothers), also suffered from the delay physical and mental development, caused by the constant malnutrition.
They were the first members of its educational and social experiment.
In poor neighborhoods of Rome at a government hostel for workers Maria Montessori opened the "Children's House".Infants whose mothers went to work, it provides good care, food, medical care.There with children, clearly lagging behind in their mental, physical and mental development, bega
In a very short time her pupils began to show progress ahead in the development of their affluent peers.
So there was the earliest well-developed systems of teaching. And an occasion to reflect - and whether properly educated and trained to "normal" children?
Today Montessori pedagogy attracts professionals and parents sober scientific, humanistic approach.Numerous inventions and pedagogical conclusions are based on the Montessori experience, not only from the theoretical constructs.Perhaps, therefore, its methods and discoveries successfully take root in various later systems, early childhood pedagogy.
Montessori pedagogy itself - it is also precisely the system, rather than a simple set of benefits.The principles it is much more important pieces of wood and beads.Maria Montessori The aim is not just to teach children to read and count.She wanted to educate the curious, independent, active and kind people, who, she believed, will make the world a better place.
One of the main principles Montessori pedagogy is: "Help me to do it yourself» .
Scientific observations have allowed Montessori formulate valid conclusions about the child's ability to free self-development in specially equipped environment.Therefore, all benefits are organized in such a way that child as little as possible had to depend on the help of an adult and during the execution of tasks, and in the evaluation of results.
The didactically prepared environment of the child is surrounded by dozens of benefits, which are periodically updated and from which he can choose.This gives each child the opportunity to develop an individual program.A teacher - do not push and do not fit, but to help its natural development.
very important Maria Montessori gave sensory development, considering it the basis for the formation of intelligence.Therefore, in her system so many benefits, aimed at stimulation of visual, auditory, tactile, and benefits, which implemented the principle of information transmission on multiple channels at once.
For example, the letters and numbers you can pick up, feel, handle them, spreading the word and examples.Thus, the abstract material approaches the visual-active thinking young child.This makes it much more successful assimilation.(The same principle applies in their manuals and Russian teacher-innovator NA Zaitsev - his dice with warehouses also differ in sound, weight, size, color). And a child and an adult is not easy to explain something in words.But if you have the opportunity to show it, to feel, to let interact, everything becomes much clearer and easier.
Much attention Montessori pedagogy pays the successful inclusion of the child in a social environment, upbringing it self-esteem.It is indicative the way that Montessori teachers recommend to respond to errors and misunderstandings students.If after explaining student performs the task correctly, this material work in this day should be discontinued, and the next time to explain it all over again.A child should not fail to remember, it should be ignored.
The Montessori environment, even a two-year crumbs very quickly learn that they have the right to choose the manual, play with it themselves (without breaking certain rules) and the obligation to remove himself all in place.
What gives children such independence?The feeling of freedom and dignity .
For how can there be dignity of the creature, which is itself no light itself can not turn on and no water to pour?And in the Montessori environment and switches and valves are located at a height accessible to the child.There is also a "self-service area", where children can practice with real economic utensils.
Well this environment settling and working in kindergarten mode where children begin to bring about a one and a half years, and where they spend much of the day, doing, playing and relaxing in general mixed-age group.Popular Now Montessori group, where classes are held two or three times a week for one to two hours, are unlikely to have a systemic impact of educational and teaching, rather - trial.
Maybe someone would think that Montessori overestimated the role of perception and intellect in the development of young children and underestimate the role of emotions and communication.Imagine the many children, each of which gently (so as not to disturb others!) On a single mat or table concentration shifts Circuits, trying to do the job.Taciturn mentor suitable for long: an individual lesson in Montessori pedagogy lasts 3-5 minutes.Just remember Kai, which lays out the pieces of ice the word "eternity" and for which other people - just a hindrance ... But this is not true.The Montessori system is accepted and work in small groups of 2-4 people, which gives children the invaluable experience of cooperation, and discuss the cognitive and educational issues in the "big circle" of the group.
very useful for children to be in a mixed-age group, where you can learn from the elders and take care of the younger .According to my observations, Montessori pedagogy allows timid, anxious, unsociable, not self-confident children stretch their wings and feel more confident.Incidentally, in the Montessori environment intentionally provided only one instance of each type of benefit.This is to ensure that the children have learned to negotiate with each other, to respect the order and recognize the interests of others.
Despite the abundance of great benefits with clear, detailed guidelines of necessary creative and loving children teachers.From them it depends largely on whether there is to develop a child placed in the "developing environment."
fully fitted Montessori environment is quite difficult and expensive (requires several hundred grants made under strict requirements), but the principles of Montessori pedagogy can be used at home, raising their child.Some games are easy enough to adapt to the home and help the child to develop the subtlety of perception, coordination, self-service skills.
17 Dec, 2017
17 Dec, 2017