Infectious mononucleosis - Symptoms and Treatment
Disease / / August 12, 2017
Infectious mononucleosis - a disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus.
Mononucleosis was discovered and described in the late 19th century Russian doctor NF Filatov, received the name from his surname - Filatov's disease.There are other names of diseases: glandular fever, benign limfoblastoz, lymphatic angina.
modern name of infectious mononucleosis was in the early 20th century, after research by American scientists of changes occurring in the body by the action of the disease.In 1964, virologists Michael Epstein (Epstein) and Yvonne Barr was isolated pathogen, known by the names of its researchers.
noteworthy that mononucleosis can only hurt the man and the monkey.
Today authentically proved that the cause of mononucleosis is a B-lymphotropic virus from the group of herpes virus type 4.This is a DNA-containing virus in immunocompromised patients, along with mononucleosis it causes carcinoma and lymphoma.One day, once in the human body, the virus remains in it forever, with a decrease in im
children first year of life is practically not affected by the disease due to congenital passive immunity.The most common infectious mononucleosis sick children up to 10 years and in adolescence, girls are the most susceptible to the 14-16 years old, boys - 16-18.Sometimes there are cases of the disease in adults, but the disease is much easier thanks to the generated specific immunity, often obliterated.
Dispatched Epstein-Barr virus by airborne droplets, through kissing, shaking hands during sexual intercourse, during a blood transfusion.The source of infection is a sick person or carrier of the virus.Cases of disease are fixed throughout the year, in the summer of incidence is slightly reduced.
symptoms and course of infectious mononucleosis
The incubation period of the disease lasts from five to forty-five days.Once in the respiratory tract, the virus infects epithelial cells, penetrate into the lymph and blood.Mononucleosis can develop gradually, with manifest symptoms:
- low-grade body temperature (37-38 ° C);
- fatigue, weakness, malaise, "weakness";
- noticeable swelling of nasal mucosa, enlarged tonsils;
- slight increase in lymph nodes.
Sometimes, a week after the onset of the disease organism copes with the infection, and if this does not happen, comes the acute phase of mononucleosis .Its symptoms are:
- increase in body temperature up to 40 ° C;
- severe headaches, weakness, muscle pain;
- severe sore throat caused by angina.Most often develops catarrhal and lacunar tonsillitis, rarely - filmy.
- marked increase in cervical, submandibular, inguinal and axillary lymph nodes;
- appearance of the rash, which has a different kind, which disappears after 1-3 days;
- enlargement of the spleen and liver.
mononucleosis during examination of the patient notes the main symptoms;We need to distinguish between mononucleosis, diphtheria, sore throats, adenovirus infection, rubella, primary manifestations of HIV infection and other diseases.For infectious mononucleosis is characterized by a combination of such expressions:
- general intoxication of the organism;
- sided sore throat;
- multiple lymph nodes;
- Banti syndrome (simultaneous enlargement of the liver and spleen), possible jaundice of the skin;
- changes in the blood picture (there is a moderate leukocytosis, increase in the number of monocytes and lymphocytes, are detected atypical mononuclear cells).
conduct laboratory diagnosis, in addition to general and full blood count blood tested for IgM and IgG antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus.Also, using ultrasound check the condition of the liver and spleen.
specific therapy has not been developed for the treatment of mononucleosis, symptomatic therapy.Assign detoxification, antihistamine, anti-pyretic, anti-viral, immunomodulatory drugs, antiseptic solutions for gargling.With the threat of bacterial infection, antibiotics are used.
If there is a severe swelling of the larynx, which can lead to asphyxia, prescribe glucocorticoids.Be sure the appointment of vitamins, dieting hepatitis.In severe disease requires bed rest.
For prophylaxis is recommended to increase immunity, but if the family who is ill mononucleosis, other ill almost one hundred percent probability.This is because a family member is ill with carrier Epstein-Barr virus for life and will release it into the environment while talking, sneezing, using a common dishes.