Cells of the immune system
Increased Immunity / / August 12, 2017
The main task of immunity reactions protection - to distinguish between "his" from "outsider" and rid the body of this "stranger".
immune system is represented by a variety of cells, each type of which performs a specific task, and their activities are closely interrelated.The system provides two different types of immunity: congenital and acquired .
Innate immunity is the resistance of bacteria, which is inherent in man from birth and inherited.
Acquired immunity develops within a person's life as it clashes with certain pathogenic microbes and viruses.
It seems incredible, but the immune system remembers every encounter with the bacteria or virus and is able at any time to develop and to put into effect the substance required to kill a specific enemy, if he is re-invade the body.
In the human body there are cells - supports immune cells, endowed with defensive abilities, as well as a number of chemical substances - the factors of humoral immunity, circulating in the blood and tissues.With t
get acquainted with the elements of the immune defense of the human body.
They are white blood cells that are part of a large family of phagocytes, cells of microorganisms-devourers.This is the least specialized immune cells that are freely "travel" on the bloodstream, sailing into the cells and tissues at the first sign of infection getting there.It granulocytes maintain a healthy state of every single organ or body part, bound for places of cuts, inflammation and bacterial penetration.They "eat" everything will seem to them suspicious.Absorbed substances granulocytes destroyed by chemical agents that are produced in the granulocyte, its lysosomes producing powerful oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide and hypochlorite.Granulocytes digest truly alien elements.They seem to put a barrier around the site of injury and infection control, not allowing the latter to penetrate deep into the body.In the course of this struggle in the surrounding tissues with free radicals that cause inflammation.
Granulocytes live for a short time from several hours to several days, and then die.Of course, it granulocytes stop bacteria with minimal disruption to our body.
It also white blood cells that pass through bloodstream, but if necessary, can penetrate into the tissue.Some organs (kidney, liver, skin, and lung) have their "permanent" macrophages.Such fixed macrophages specialize towards those bacteria that usually enter the body in the places of their permanent residence.
Macrophages in blood is much smaller than the granulocytes - about 100,000 as compared to granulocytes 10000000 1 ml of blood.
Macrophages have receptors - the antennas that make getting information about the microbial cell and is included in the program of neutralizing foreign microorganism.
active macrophages start to produce a range of chemical tools to combat bacteria, viruses and cancer cells.These substances are literally incinerate enemy cell.
Microorganisms under the influence of oxidizing agents macrophage disintegrate and die.
It is unknown what mechanism underlies the virus or cancer cell detection.Often the cancer is not detected in a timely manner, as it is not seen by the immune system.Sometimes viruses are not seen by macrophages.The objective of current research is in the timely recognition of viral cells, cancer cells, the creation of new drugs that kill cancer cells and harmful viruses before they can cause the body great harm.
Immediately after detection of a virus or a cancer cell macrophage distinguishes cytokines in the blood.These substances cause a variety of body responses, including fever, sleep.
Macrophages deliver information to T-lymphocytes, which stimulate a strong immune response.T-lymphocytes include two types of immune cells, each of which can enact various components of the immune system.
consistently consider them.
This is not a cage, and a group of proteins in the blood, representing the most powerful of the humoral factors of the immune system.Because the proteins are composed of amino acids, and also includes the complement of amino acids.They initiate protective reaction when encountering danger.
Once complement discovers an alien microorganism, it envelops it and punches holes in its cell membrane, thereby causing the death of the microorganism.At the same time complement produces compounds that are perceived as an alarm throughout the body.This phenomenon is caused by infection redness around the penetration site.
If it is impossible to cope with the macrophage activator in the penetration of the signal sent center T cells, helper T cells.T-helper cells have the ability to produce and mobilize some other powerful elements of the immune system.However
before helper T starts to operate, it must receive information on the presence of a specific antigen - bacteria, a virus, a foreign protein or a cancer cell.After receiving the alarm, the T-helper starts to activate the body's defenses.Only T-helper cells are able to mobilize all the forces of the body to fight infection.
reaction of T-helper antigen does not happen automatically.On the surface, the helper should be a special receptor, which corresponds exactly to the antigen, the key to the lock.Each T-helper is able to identify the characteristics of its antigen only, but it is enough for the organization of the immune response.It is believed that millions of messages macrophage responds only a small part of T-helper cells.The rest have a specific receptor for the antigen.Receptors of the same on each T-helper cells are formed by a team of genes are the same for all cells.Each cell builds its receptor on the basis of the genetic matrix of an extensive range offered by genes.Education lymphocytes occurs in the thymus (thymus).It was there that the T-helper cells acquire specific receptor, assuming some responsibility for the immune response.As soon as the helper T gets its receptor, it goes into the blood, ready for a meeting with his enemy.After some time the lymphocyte is divided, and its progeny will carry the same receptor.If the body will get the bacteria or virus, the members of the family or clan disperse throughout the body and know your enemy in every tissue, every organ.
important to emphasize that each pathogen of a disease carries not one but several antigens, so the immune system in the identification of the enemy's chances high.It is enough to identify the helper of his enemy, he develops a violent activity.According to the millions and millions of immune cells signal take up their positions and start acting.Man at this time feels uncomfortable: weakness, fatigue, pain, sweating ... In the meantime, all the resources of the body included on signals the immune system to fight the disease.The works include killer cells, another type of white blood cells that can kill bacteria, viruses and cancer cells.And all this time the immune system is constantly learning by doing, remembering the successful versions of the immune response, because at the next meeting of the antigen it will have ready and organized plan of action.
If T cells are weakened or damaged (eg, as in AIDS), the possibility of the immune system will be incomplete, and because in the case of ingestion of infection resistance will be carried out insufficiently or not at all weakened, leading to irreversible consequences.
If only T-helper antigen is recognized, it begins to multiply, according to the body as much as possible out of print count with the same receptor.And then distributed throughout the body cells that can recognize the foreign organism, permeate into the human body.
cytokines and interleukins
Lymphocytes transmit information cytokines , mechanisms that trigger changes in the immune activity and metabolism.The most important are the interleukins in these processes (from interleukin-1 to interleukin-17).They work both together and separately, running different processes.
interleukin-1 and interferon make the sick person sleepy.Should a man take a horizontal position, as his body can mobilize forces to fight the disease.
Other cytokines cause fever, to make the body's internal environment less favorable for foreign microorganism.
Another group of substances regulates the synthesis of certain hormones, thereby helping to change a person's mood.Everyone knows how to manifest depression, irritability and fatigue caused by the common cold.And all of this is nothing but an attempt to isolate the organism and how to focus on the fight against infection, turning into a recluse.If
simultaneously affect interleukin-1, interferon and tumor necrosis factor in the blood concentration increases immune proteins, reduced zinc content. it is known that zinc is very important to provide an immune response .
Remember! These products contain significant amounts of zinc (in mg / 100 g of product):
|4,2||dry split peas|
|1,7||sea fish (tuna, haddock)|
|1,6||fresh green peas|
Zinc is also found in black pepper, paprika, mustard, thyme, cinnamon, so it is recommended to use the seasoning in a systematic nutrition to enhance immunity.
Interleukin-2 stimulates the proliferation of T-helper cells, as well as, if necessary, triggers the production of tumor necrosis factor.Interleukin-2 promotes the formation of the gamma-interferon - a substance that inhibits the multiplication of viruses.
interleukins-2, -4 and -6 and interferon activate cytotoxic cells which kill the virus infected cells or cancerous cells.The immediate threat of cancer cells bear tumor necrosis factor.
however not always understood the role of interferon and interleukins in accelerating the disintegration of muscle cells.
It should be noted another important feature: the interferon makes killer cells gang up on the antigen.
Influenced interleukins -4, -5, -6, released the T-helper cells, induces the production of antibodies in large quantities.
β-cells identify antibody variants to dwell on the fact that most accurately corresponds to a specific antigen.After the necessary antibodies are produced in sufficient quantities to destroy the antigen and antibody structure fits into the genetic memory to the next meeting with the same virus the immune system had already been tried and tested and reliable protection weapon.
briefly your attention to the question: as lymphocytes are trained?
Long before the immune cells will take part in the immune response, they are born, mature and learn.The predominant majority of immune cells are born in the bone marrow, and thymus (thymus).The cells produced in the bone marrow, remain there until full maturity, or sent to the instruction to the thymus.Education in the thymus are virtually all immature T cells.Up to 80% of the cells undergoing training in the thymus, are dying, and not leaving his "school" because they do not learn to distinguish between "their" and "foreign".
At the same time, in some cases, the immune system does not distinguish where "their" and "foreign" cells, and even more so - begins to attack its own cells.This process is called autoimmunity .This autoimmune process of the destruction of its own tissues, we can observe some forms of diabetes, diseases of the thyroid gland (in particular, for radiation thyroiditis), rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis and others.
In other cases, the immune system reacts symptoms of hypersensitivity to meet with innocentantigen (pollen, certain foods, etc.).
adverse reaction of the immune system occurs and after organ transplantation in the form of graft rejection, t. E. The reaction of our immune system to the emergence of foreign tissue.
immune system - a very complex system that ensures the well-being of our stay and life in the outside world.It is clear that the immune system can be oppressed with diseases and stress, severe malnutrition and overwork.
How to stimulate the immune system?What is important in this complex process?
specialists-immunologists are four broad categories of immune system stimulants:
- Activators exchange of information within the immune cells, which leads to an increase in the efficiency of its work.
- Stimulants increase in the number of immune cells , increase their aggressiveness and effectiveness of interactions with the antigen at a meeting.
- blocking the formation of free radicals , which are one of the main causes of aging and the emergence of many diseases, especially heart and brain diseases.
- Maintenance physiological composition and activity of blood cells and tissue fluid , t. E. Liquids, in which immune cells work.
stimulators of the immune system are not drugs in the full sense of the word.They enhance the body's defense mechanisms, rather than replace them.They can in a short time to restore health, and greatly reduce the chances of contracting.
If we imagine how the stimulators of the immune system, it should be recalled that the immune cell produces and interleukins, and antibodies, and a wide range of toxins, which kill bacteria, viruses and cancer cells.If necessary, each immune cell can develop and share.To generate new cells need carbohydrates, proteins, antioxidants, mineral components and other equally important ingredients.All of these substances a person gets by eating food.
important element of the immune defense is the normal state of the communication system, or alert, the immune cells.If anything interferes with the transmission signal, immune cells may not be able to fully deal with the "enemy" - the pathogen.Thus, the immune system of the old people can be so reduced, the oppressed, that they begin to suffer infectious diseases that are not paying attention to the youth.
Immunity may decrease due to weakening of the ability to share in immune cells.This happens when a person suffers from stress due to the loss of loved ones.Then the cells just do not respond to the presence of a pathogenic factor.
In other cases, the cell can simply destroy itself.Most often, this is the result of prolonged fasting and termination of data communication from the receptors to the nucleus.
12 Aug, 2017