Drugs for lowering cholesterol
Medicine / / May 22, 2016
- reasons hypercholesterolemia
- Drug treatment of hypercholesterolemia
Elevated blood cholesterol is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis, and as a result of coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction,acute disorders of cerebral circulation, and many other serious diseases.At a moderately elevated cholesterol, in most cases, a person enough to correct lifestyle and diet, but in severe and persistent hypercholesterolemia is necessary to use drugs for cholesterol.
High blood cholesterol is a fairly common condition in today's society.Statistics show that approximately 10-15% of the adult population of hypercholesterolemia observed in varying degrees.The main reasons contributing to the emergence of this problem are the following:
- Malnutrition.Predominance of animal foods diet high in fat, flour products, which include margarine.Of great importance is the method of cooking.When roasting, even relatively harmless products formed trans fats, resulting in cholesterol increases in the finished plate in 2 - 3 times.
- Hypodynamy.Sedentary lifestyle, lack of regular exercise help to slow down the excretion of excess cholesterol from the body.
- Bad habits.Smoking and alcohol abuse significantly lead to hypercholesterolemia.
- hereditary disorders of lipid metabolism.Congenital enzyme deficiency, (lipoprotein lipase deficiency, apoprotein).
- Concomitant diseases.Elevated cholesterol levels seen in people suffering from diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism, chronic renal disease, impaired hepatic function.
Drug treatment of hypercholesterolemia
lower cholesterol in the blood to normal levels of medicines is only possible through an integrated approach to the problem.This means that the medication should be used in parallel acting on the main causes of the high cholesterol content in the body.During treatment the patient will have to adhere to a strict diet, give up bad habits, regular physical activity to show.
Currently used drugs to reduce cholesterol in the blood belong to different pharmacological groups, the main ones are the following:
- Statins.From all this group of lipid-lowering agents (simvastatin, pravastatin, lovastatin, atorvastatin, fluvastatin, rosuvastatin) has the strongest effect.Their mechanism of action is the blocking of cholesterol synthesis by the liver cells by increasing their surface at a low density lipoprotein receptor number.Also, they not only affect the exchange of lipoproteins, but a positive effect on the endothelium, forming the inner shell of the vascular wall.The effect of statins clearly dose-dependent, so it is extremely important before you start taking the drug to calculate the exact amount.Generally accepted baseline cholesterol and body weight of the patient into account.Statins good tolerated by most patients.They need to be taken once daily in the evening, usually before or during dinner meal, due to the fact that the enhanced cholesterol synthesis in the nighttime.Long-term treatment with statins should periodically monitor liver function indicators (AST and ALT).The increase in enzyme levels more than three times, is the reason for change of treatment.
- preparations of nicotinic acid.Niacin (B3 vitamin) effectively lowers blood cholesterol levels by increasing the content of high density lipoproteins.This effect is achieved by blocking fatty acids out of the subcutaneous fat into the bloodstream.Also, nicotinic acid inhibits the synthesis of cholesterol by the liver cells.In addition, nicotinic acid lowers blood glucose levels, which is important for patients with diabetes.For achieving a hypolipidemic effect requires high doses of nicotinic acid, - up to 3 grams or more per day.Therefore, many patients have adverse reactions in the form of hot flashes, hot flushes, headaches, stomach pains.To reduce the adverse reactions is not recommended to take the tablets on an empty stomach.Long-term use of high doses of niacin can cause liver (steatosis).In order to prevent complications in the liver is necessary to take other B vitamins and gepatoprotektory.
- bile acid sequestrants.Drugs in this group (colestipol, Colestid, cholestyramine), the chemical structure is ion exchange resin.They enhance the excretion of fat and their derivatives from the body by inhibiting intestinal absorption of bile acids, which significantly reduces their recycling.Bile acid sequestrants used in fairly high dose (10-12 grams to 2 times a day), while they must drink plenty of fluid.During treatment may develop side effects such as flatulence and other violations of the gastrointestinal system.A feature of drugs of this group is their ability, together with delayed absorption of fats and bile acids cause a delay in absorption of drugs:. Cardiac glycosides, antibiotics, anticoagulants, etc. Therefore, other medicines should be taken no earlier than 3-4 hours after taking the sequestrant.
- derivatives fiber acid (bezafibrate, atromid, gemfibrozil, clofibrate, gevilon) have moderate gipolipoproteinemicheskim action, but, nevertheless, are quite widespread popularity.Their use requires a compulsory control of liver function.Fibrates increase the risk of stone formation in the gall bladder, which is why contraindicated in cholecystitis and cholelithiasis.
- Biologically active additives (BAA).Recently, dietary supplements gained widespread popularity thanks to promotional activities of manufacturers of the product.Nutritional supplements are more commercial products than cure.There are no official statistics, confirmed by experience, whether they are effective in reducing cholesterol in fact.