Statins are cholesterol : the benefits and harms
Medicine / / May 19, 2016
- mechanism of action of statins
- Indications for statins
- Side effects and harms of statins
- Natural statins
Elevated blood cholesterol is a major predisposing factor for occurrence of atherosclerotic vascular lesionswhich leads to cardiac ischemia, cerebral blood flow disturbance, intestines, kidneys, extremities.These pathological conditions are very dangerous to human life, so they prevent the need for timely prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, which is impossible without the normalization of cholesterol levels.With this task well handle statins - modern drugs with hypolipidemic action.
Statins - the term combines the class of drugs to lower blood cholesterol levels, which were found in the 1970s.Currently are 4 generations of these drugs (in brackets are the trade names):
- Lovastatin (Lovastatin, Cardiostatin), simvastatin (Aterostat, Vasilip, Simvakard et al.), Pravastatin (Pravastatin, Lipostat).
- Fluvastatin (Lescol).
- Atorvastatin (Amvastan, Atorvastatin, Lipitor, Atoris et al.).
- Rosuvastatin (Roxer, Crestor, Rozart etc.).
main effects of statins:
- decrease in blood levels of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein (LDL), and it is the "bad" cholesterol;
- increase in the concentration of high density lipoprotein (HDL) or "good" cholesterol, which has anti-atherogenic, ie protivoateroskleroticheskim action;
- decrease in triglyceride concentration (substances that form the core of the body fat stores).
new generation of statins are more effective, they help in cases of futility taking other statins.Some manufacturers claim that preparations based on rosuvastatin even reduce the size of the already formed atherosclerotic plaques.Accordingly, the price of newer medicines above example, Lovastatin costs about 400 rubles.packing and Crestor - an average of 1,000 rubles.
mechanism of action of statins
preparations for lowering blood cholesterol inhibit the activity of a particular enzyme (HMG CoA reductase), which regulates the synthesis of cholesterol in the liver cells.As is known, a larger amount of the substance is formed in the body, and not supplied with food.
Furthermore, statins increase in cells contribute to tissue specific number of LDL receptors, which contributes to the removal of these compounds from the blood plasma.And when their level decreases compensatory increases HDL cholesterol synthesis which does not settle on vessel walls, so do not form plaques.
indications for statins
purpose At what cholesterol prescribed statins?The use of this group of drugs is expedient if the following indications:
- hypercholesterolemia (cholesterol content in blood serum, exceeding 5.8 mmol / L), which can not be correct diet for 3 months.
- severity of clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis.
- Confirmed coronary heart disease.
According to American doctors, statin therapy is necessary and at a lower cholesterol level (even lower than 3.5 mmol / l), if the patient there are one or more risk factors for coronary heart disease: older age, genetic predisposition, male sex,obesity, diabetes, hypertension.
Therefore, before prescribing drugs of this group of lipid-lowering drugs the patient should undergo a full examination (examination, laboratory tests, instrumental tests), the results of which will determine whether the use of statins.Therefore, self-treatment with these drugs is not recommended.
Side effects and harms of statins
Although statins on cholesterol are effective and generally well tolerated by patients, their application does not pass without consequences for the organism, the more so as to achieve real results requires long-term use of these drugs (on average 3-4of the year).
greatest negative impact of statins exposed muscular system.Patients may have myopathy, which is manifested, and the weakening of the skeletal muscles soreness.If the background of this is not to stop treatment, possible development of rhabdomyolysis - the disintegration of muscle fibers, which results in the blockage of the renal tubules decomposition products and there is acute renal failure.
probability of occurrence of these life-threatening conditions of the person is increased if the patient is in parallel takes some medications: antibiotics (macrolides), cytotoxic agents, verapamil, amiodarone, fibrates (another group of lipid-lowering drugs).Also at risk of rhabdomyolysis is influenced by the following factors:
- advanced age and the presence of chronic diseases;
- liver functioning;
- drinking large amounts of drugs;
- drinking grapefruit juice.
Furthermore, when statins may increase the level of hepatic enzymes (transaminase) that indicates the negative effects of drugs on the liver.Especially pronounced is the negative impact of the abuse of alcohol the patient.It is worth mentioning, and some non-specific side effects of statin: headache, rash, flatulence and other intestinal disorders, insomnia.These states are developing much more often than those described above, and disappear after reducing the dose.
Thus, statin therapy requires careful monitoring by a doctor and periodic blood tests the patient (for the determination of cholesterol, ALT, AST, creatine phosphokinase or CPK, increased levels of the enzyme indicate muscle damage).
For people who are afraid to take statins because of their side effects, there is an alternative - natural statins, ie substances with a specific activity of contained in the food.These include:
- ascorbic acid.She can enrich the body, using the infusion of rose hips, hot and sweet peppers, sea buckthorn, black currant, different kinds of cabbage, citrus fruits.
- Niacin (vitamin B3 or PP), which is abundant in meat, a variety of nuts, grains, red fish.
- fatty acids (especially omega-3).They are rich in vegetable oils (especially flax), oily fish.
- monacolin, which is contained in the extract of red yeast rice.This tool is sold as food supplements, but it is not allowed in all countries.
- Policosanol.It is obtained from sugar cane and is produced in the form of capsules.
- Resveratrol, which is in red wine and grape skins.
- dietary fiber (e.g., pectins).They contain large quantities of bread with bran, cereals (barley, buckwheat, oats), beans, cabbage, carrots, apples.
- Curcumin, contained in turmeric.
also some effect of statins have garlic and fermented soy products such as miso or tempeh (they are much easier to digest than unfermented).