Expectorant cough : what to choose
Medicine / / May 18, 2016
- mechanism of cough
- Medicines to effectively combat
- Groups expectorants
- expectorant drugs
- Combined medication
Whatever the reason,cough develops due to inflammation of the bronchi and trachea cells their synthesis of large amounts of thick, viscous mucus.For its liquefaction and improving discharge of used special group of medicines - expectorants, which differ in their mechanism of action.
mechanism of cough
Cough - a physiological response, aimed at the elimination (removal), the causative agent of the inflammatory response in the bronchi and lungs.Its development is several mechanisms:
- irritation peripheral cough receptors located in the lining of the trachea and bronchi, which causes the cough reflex.
- swelling of the bronchial mucosa and tracheal inflammation in the background.
- increased production of mucus (sputum) goblet cells of the mucous membrane as a result of inflammation, mucus with a thick, further irritating cough receptors and poorly displayed outside.
addition may be the development of a mechanism of cough of central origin.This inflammation in the bronchi and lungs is absent, and a cough develops with the direct stimulation of the cough center located in the medulla oblongata.In the case of the development of modern medicines are not effective expectorant.
Medicines to effectively combat
to reduce the severity and intensity of cough medicines used several pharmacological groups, which include:
- antitussive agents - inhibit the cough reflex.These drugs act on several parts of the brain reflex arc center (narcotic codeine, non-narcotic - libeksin glaucine.) And peripheral receptors of the mucous trachea and bronchi (local anesthetics - lidocaine, procaine).
- Expectorants - improve the excretion of mucus from the trachea and bronchi, thereby accelerating the elimination of causal factors.
The use of drugs of the central and peripheral mechanism of action is shown only in the event that a dry cough.In other cases, their use is not recommended, as they can hold a causative factor in lung inflammation system and exacerbate the underlying disease.Physiologically, it is reasonable to use expectorants medications.
Depending on the underlying mechanism of action and the effect is achieved, identify several major groups expectorant drugs, these include:
- expectorant for dry cough - increase the production of liquid sputum, thereby developing a productive cough andit appears from the bronchi.
- Mucolytics -razzhizhayut sputum, thereby improving its clearance from the pulmonary system.
- Bronchodilators - increase the lumen of the bronchi, improving the elimination of mucus thick and liquid.
- Combined funds - contain several active substances of different pharmacological groups.
This group of drugs used for dry cough, when the organs of the respiratory system, bronchi and trachea going to develop a small amount of wet phlegm.According to the mechanism of action expectorant allocate 2 types of medicines:
- reflex action-they are accepted into the wet cough, irritate the stomach receptors, thereby reflexively increased production and excretion of mucus in the respiratory tract.The main representatives of this group of drugs - medicinal herbs (thermopsis, plantain, mother and stepmother, marshmallow);
- medication directly (resorptive) action -actions substance absorbed into the bloodstream, gets out of it in the bronchial mucosa by stimulating the production of its liquid sputum cells.These otnosyatsyayodid potassium, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate).
Due to the low risk of pobochnogodeystviya, today more commonly used expectorant cough reflex action on the basis of lekartsvennyh plants.Usually it is a syrup, which includes several lekartsvennyh herbs.
This group includes several types of expectorants with mucolytic properties.They are used in dry cough with production of viscous, thick sputum.The mechanism of action is expectorant liquefaction of sputum.The main types of mucolytics group include:
- Enzymatic medicines - break peptide bonds glycoprotein complexes mucus, due to which it becomes more liquid.Main products are based on the enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin.Currently, their use is limited due to the frequent development of allergic complications.
- cysteine derivatives - the most common medicines from the group of mucolytics.Their mechanism of action is associated with cleavage of disulfide bonds in protein molecules sputum, leading to its liquefaction.They also enhance the movement of the cilia of the epithelial cells, stimulating the elimination of liquefied sputum.They come in the form of syrup (Ambroxol), tablets (Mukolvan, Mukaltin) and solutions for injection (Lasolvan).
Bronchodilators are used in spastic cough, which is the case with allergies and asthma.Improve the elimination of phlegm due to the expansion of the bronchi (Bronholitin).
modern artist, which preparations contain the active ingredients of different pharmacological action.Usually, a combination of expectorant medication plant-based and mucolytic derivative of cysteine.Due to such a combination greatly increases efficiency.
Choice extraordinary means should be based on the productivity of the cough (dry or wet), evidence of bronchospasm (shortness of breath) and its duration.In the absence of efficacy and prolonged coughing more than 5 days, you need to pass an additional examination and consultation with a doctor.