Blood thinners : list
Medicine / / May 17, 2016
- more dangerous clots?
- What are the means
- Features of the application of different drugs
Blood is the transport system in the body.Circulating through the vessels of all sizes, it carries oxygen and carbon dioxide, nutrients and metabolic products, hormones and other important bioactive compounds.Changes in blood viscosity and the tendency to thrombus formation can significantly disrupt this process.To prevent such a violation is recommended to use special blood thinners.
more dangerous clots?
thrombus formation - a natural defense the body from excessive bleeding in wounds.But if this process occurs in the lumen of blood vessels, it can cause terrible consequences.Clot formation zone are areas of the circulatory system, having damages or irregularities on the inner shell.It is also a predisposing factor is the violation of blood flow velocity.Therefore, the risk of blood clots is increased in varicose veins, arteriosclerosis, heart diseases and cardiac arrhythmias.In addition
formed clots migrate and clog small blood vessels, making it difficult for the microcirculation.A thrombosis of vessels large and small caliber in the internal organs develop infarcts - areas of mass death of cells due to lack of oxygen (ischemia).Especially dangerous is the damage to the brain and heart.A very high mortality rate observed in the formation of pulmonary embolism.
What are the means
possible to use blood thinners with different mechanisms of action.All used tools are divided into several groups:
- reducing adhesion of red blood cells and platelets to each other and to the walls of blood vessels (desagregants);
- alter blood clotting due to the effect on platelets and clotting factors are all (direct anticoagulants);
- reduce the production of clotting in the liver by reducing the capture of vitamin K factors (indirect anticoagulants).
By antiplatelet drugs include acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin), clopidogrel and dipyridamole (Curantil), here you can enable or pentoxifylline (Trental).Some drugs also has a similar effect, but they are not used to dilute the blood.Antiplatelet agents are taken in pill form.To protect the gastric mucosa, currently available agents in the enteric coating.This is mainly based on aspirin formulations.
main straight is the anticoagulant heparin.Available in low-cut form of the drug (Fraksiparin, Clexane, and others).In addition, sometimes use hirudotherapy.So called leech therapy in saliva that also contains a direct anticoagulant.Heparin preparations are only used as an injection, in the gastrointestinal tract, they are destroyed.
Indirect anticoagulants include Sinkumar, Fenilin and Warfarin.Currently Fenilin try not to use because of its toxicity and the frequent occurrence of side effects.
Features of the application of different drugs
All blood thinners are used on a daily basis, only the regularity of their reception can provide the necessary stable preventive effect.The decision on the beginning of the treatment and the necessary selection and dosing regimens should be carried out by your doctor.It is not necessary to begin treatment on their own or arbitrarily adjust it, it is fraught with serious complications.
Antiplatelet agents are taken for a long time, the effect comes gradually.If already diagnosed thromboembolic complications, heart attacks and strokes preference is given to preparations based on acetylsalicylic acid.But they can damage the stomach wall and lead to the development of peptic ulcer.Therefore, it is desirable to use a tablet enteric protective coating.But these drugs can not crush or chew.
Curantil mainly used in thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities and in pregnant women with pathology of haemostasis (blood coagulation).Clopidogrel preparations are the most expensive of antiplatelet agents, so they are usually recommended if there are contraindications to the use of aspirin.
direct anticoagulants - the most powerful antithrombotic agents.They are appointed under the strict control of the complex clotting.Pure heparin are rarely used.Preferred low-cut drugs that affect a limited number of coagulation factors and are considered safer.They are administered subcutaneously, the effect develops rapidly.
Indirect anticoagulants may have different cumulative (cumulative) effect and differ in speed of onset of anticoagulation action.The most "fast" one is Warfarin, aspiring to work at the end of the first 12 hours.For dose adjustment and monitoring of treatment it is necessary to regularly donate blood to assess the INR (international normalized ratio).The main method of treatment of an overdose of anticoagulants - administration of vitamin K.
blood thinners are used according to indications, the increased risk of thrombosis after vascular accidents have already occurred (myocardial infarction, stroke).It is important to strictly follow the doctor's recommendations, it will reduce the risk of complications.