Red blood cells in urine : causes of
Analyses And Studies / / August 12, 2017
- What are the red blood cells in the urine?
- When red blood cells in the urine are increased?
red blood cells in the urine, the term describes hematuria .Their numbers may be small, they are only visible under a microscope ( microhematuria ), and very large when the urine becomes red shade ( gross hematuria ).The rate of red blood cells in the urine is 1-2 cells in the field of view (field of view - it is visible in the microscope the circle that defines the elements of urine and their number).
What are the red blood cells in the urine?
At microscopy of urine sediment, depending on the presence of hemoglobin come across these types of red blood cells:
- Unmodified red blood cells - contain hemoglobin, have the form biconcave disk in red.
- Changed (leached) erythrocytes - hemoglobin without, under a microscope, colorless, may appear in the form of rings.Yield hemoglobin occurs as a result of increased osmolarity, long-term presence of erythrocytes in the urine and kidney glomerulifiltration (glomerulonephritis).
blood in the urine serves as a pretext for an immediate visit to the doctor, as most causes of hematuria are very dangerous.
process of forming a urine begins in the glomeruli of the kidneys, where it is the primary filtration of blood, with normal red blood cells, white blood cells and plasma proteins do not pass through the membrane of the glomeruli.Therefore, their appearance in the urine is a sign of disease.
When red blood cells in the urine are increased?
Causes of red blood cells in the urine are physical, renal (kidney) and postrenal origin.Causes of somatic origin due to the fact that the kidneys are not involved in the pathological process, and react to disease in other organs and systems.These include:
- Thrombocytopenia - a state of decreased number of platelets in the blood, which leads to disruption of blood clotting in the blood vessels, and it enters the urine in the primary filtration in the glomeruli.
- Hemophilia - decrease in blood clotting by reducing the synthesis of plasma coagulation factors.erythrocytes in urine entering the mechanism is the same.
- intoxication - getting the toxins (poisons) for various viral and bacterial infections causes an increase in the permeability of the membrane of the glomeruli to erythrocytes, whereby they fall into the urine.
Rentalnye reasons cause an increase in red blood cells in renal disease:
- Acute and chronic glomerulonephritis - an autoimmune disease of the glomeruli and tubules of the kidneys, in which it gets a significant amount of red blood cells during filtration.Therefore, under the microscope determines the change in shape of red blood cells.
- kidney tumor - growing tumor can destroy the wall of the vessel, there is a slight bleeding with a hit of red blood cells in the urine.In this case the analysis are visualized in unmodified erythrocytes.
- Urolithiasis - metabolic diseases, in which stones are formed in the renal pelvis renal system stones edges can damage the mucous membrane, leading to bleeding in the urine as unchanged erythrocytes appear.
- pyelonephritis - an infectious inflammatory disease of the kidneys, one kidney is affected mainly as a result of inflammation is increased permeability of the renal vessels.In the urine increases the number of red blood cells unaltered, which fall into it by diapedesis (leakage) through the walls of the arteries.
- hydronephrosis - a violation of the outflow of urine causes kidney stretching vascular damage.
- trauma - penetrating stab wound to the kidney or break a fall leading to massive bleeding, urine becomes saturated red (gross hematuria).
In the case of the origin of the reasons postrenal high content of red blood cells in the urine develops due to diseases of the bladder or urethra:
- Cystitis - inflammation of the bladder mucosa, which results in the penetration of red blood cells through the walls of blood vessels, their shape is not changed.
- presence of stones in the bladder or the urethra (urethritis) causes trauma mucosal bleeding and red blood cells hit unchanged into the urine.
- neoplastic (tumor) of the bladder or urethra - causes destruction of tumor growth vessels appear unchanged in the urine erythrocytes, the number of which depends on the caliber of the damaged vessel.
- injury of the bladder or urethra with damage to blood vessels and bleeding accompanied by gross hematuria.
Some reproductive system diseases of the organs can also provoke an increased number of red blood cells in the urine.For some diseases of the prostate gland in males lead to hematuria:
- prostate cancer - blood in the urine caused by destruction of blood vessels growing tumor in the prostate;
- prostatitis - an inflammation of the prostate, a mechanism for increasing the number of erythrocytes is the same as in other inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system.
In women, the appearance of red blood cells in the urine caused by such diseases of the reproductive system:
- uterine bleeding - blood from the vagina at the same time can get into the urine during urination;
- cervical erosion - a process often captures and destroys the integrity of the blood vessels to the output.
If urine and increased white blood cells and red blood cells, it indicates the presence of inflammation in the kidneys (pyelonephritis) or in the organs of the urogenital system (cystitis, urethritis, prostatitis).
In children, due to the nature of the genitourinary system cause the appearance of red blood cells in the urine more often pyelonephritis, especially in girls.At the same time against the backdrop of hematuria in a child expressed symptoms of intoxication - an increase in body temperature up to 38,0º C or higher, chills, fever, headache, and general weakness.
Increasing the amount of erythrocyte in urine is not only in pathologies but also normal, under certain physiological states:
- stay in the hot room (sauna, thermal management), which leads to an overall overheating organism causes a transient (temporary) increaseerythrocyte in urine;
- stresses - glucocorticosteroids cause an increased concentration in the blood that do renal vascular wall permeable to erythrocytes;
- denominated exercise - from athletes to people after heavy physical labor develops microhematuria;
- alcohol - alcohol causes spasm (constriction) of renal vessels and increased permeability of their walls to erythrocytes;
- foods with a high content of spices.
addition of erythrocytes in gross hematuria red urine staining can attach directly to hemoglobin.With the development of hemolysis (process of destruction of red blood cells), hemoglobin accumulates in the plasma, and excreted in the urine - hemoglobinuria.It is worth remembering that hemoglobin scores glomeruli filters and blocks urine, occurs as a result of acute renal failure.