Red blood cells in the urine of the child : norm and pathology
Analyses And Studies / / August 12, 2017
- Normal indicators
- Causes of red blood cells in the urine
- Diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract, leading to hematuria
- diseases of other organs and systems that may give rise to red blood cells in the urine (reactivehaematuria)
changes in terms of human urine in her study helps to identify the occurrence of a disease.No exception is the appearance of red blood cells in the baby's urine.This phenomenon is described by the term hematuria ( eritrotsiturii ).
Norma red blood cells in the urine of children from 2 to 4 in the field of microscopy of urine sediment.Field of view - it is a circle, which sees in the eyepiece of the microscope laboratory, nearly all elements of urine sediment are considered to be in sight.
Depending on the number of red blood cells in the urine release:
- microhematuria - the number of red blood cells in the urine and 20 in the field of vision, visual color is not changed;
- gross hematuria - the highest number of red blood cells, which can not be count, urine becomes red or brown (in the laboratory analysis results may write "Red blood cells in the entire field of view").
Also on the morphological characteristics of red blood cells can be:
- unchanged - seen under a microscope as biconcave disks yellowish show blood in the urine enters the urinary tract of the lower divisions (the problem in the ureters, bladder or urethra);
- modified (leached) - formed by the exit from the hemoglobin of red blood cells with a long stay in the acidic environment of urine, are colorless wheels or balls, usually is the evidence of blood in urine even hit in the kidney (glomeruli, glomeruli of the kidney).
Causes of red blood cells in the urine
to determine the cause of the red blood cells in the urine is necessary to consider a number of factors - appearance of the sediment in white blood cells (immune cells), the cylinders (casts of renal tubules), salt crystals.It is also necessary to consider the child's complaints (back pain), general condition (fever, fatigue, lack of appetite).Since red blood cells and white blood cells in the urine of the child indicate inflammatory changes, often with pyelonephritis.The appearance of the cylinders (casts of renal tubules) indicates a problem in the glomeruli of the kidneys - glomerulonephritis.
Causes of red blood cells in the urine of the child can be divided into 2 groups:
- reasons associated with inflammatory or non-inflammatory diseases of the urinary system directly;
- reasons associated with diseases of other organs and body systems, which react with the kidneys in the form of the appearance of red blood cells in the urine (hematuria reactive).
Diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract, leading to hematuria
This is a large group, there is inflammation (infectious or autoimmune) and noninflammatory kidney disease, accompanied by the appearance of red blood cells in the baby's urine.
Basic inflammatory kidney and urinary tract diseases:
Glomerulonephritis - an autoimmune kidney disease associated with glomerular lesions of the immune system (glomeruli) of the kidneys, which is the primary filtration of blood plasma.At the same time develop antibodies, "mistaken" attack kidney cells.Due to inflammation of the glomeruli become larger pores and "pass" filtering red blood cells from the blood.The urine sediment can be seen modified (leached) erythrocytes in the amount of more than 20 in sight.Also present in the cylinders and urine protein.
pyelonephritis - an infectious-inflammatory disease of the kidney pelvis and cups, which are collected and excretion of urine.As a result, inflammation is a "percolation" (diapedesis) of red blood cells in the urine with mucous.In laboratory analysis can also see changes red blood cells, but their number is low - an average of 20 in the field of view.But the number of white blood cells can be increased, until they fill the entire field of view.
Cystitis - also infectious and inflammatory disease that develops in the lining of the bladder.red blood cells in the urine hitting mechanism is the same, but with microscopic red blood cells unmodified (evidence of their output in the urine of the urinary tract in the lower divisions).A child may receive complaints of pain at the end of urination.
Urethritis - struck mucosa of the urethra (the area between the bladder and outlet), red blood cells in the urine unchanged, they are less than the leukocytes.The appearance of these cells is accompanied by pain and sharp pain when urinating - the baby cries when trying to pee.
non-inflammatory disorder of the genitourinary system, in which the red blood cells in the urine of a child raised:
Urolithiasis - for children rare (more common in adults).The appearance of red blood cells caused by damage to the urinary tract mucosa stones.At considerable damages can be gross hematuria with red urine.In microscopy, a coma of red blood cells, it is possible to see a large number of crystals of urate salts or oxalates.
tumor disease - in this case the tumor invasion into the tissues of the urinary system to the destruction of vessels, as a result - the appearance of red blood cells in the urine (often gross hematuria).Depending on the level of destruction they can be modified or not.
injury - one of the most frequent causes of red blood cells in the urine.As a result of violating the integrity of kidney or bladder tissue, there is a vascular rupture and penetration of blood into the urine.In parallel, the child complains of severe pain in the projection of the damage.
diseases of other organs and systems, which can give rise to red blood cells in the urine (hematuria reactive)
Some diseases cause intoxication and common reaction of all tissues, including the kidney.As a result of the reaction during filtration of blood plasma through the membrane and undergo renal glomerulus erythrocytes.Such diseases include:
- acute respiratory viral infections - with a significant increase in body temperature and general intoxication, often causes hematuria flu;
- some bacterial infections - typhoid fever, severe course of intestinal infections, meningeal infection;
- sepsis - a condition in which bacteria enter the blood of the child, causing severe intoxication;
- purulent disease - the body's soft tissue abscesses (abscess - a cavity filled with pus);
- osteomyelitis - a serious infectious purulent bone disease.
After recovery and rehabilitation, certainly after some time (usually 2 weeks) shall re-CBC, so that the doctor can make sure that there are no diseases of the kidneys.
Normally, red blood cells in the urine may also occur after exercise, so it is important to take the analysis of the morning portion of urine on an empty stomach.It is also necessary to remember that teenage girls with the onset of menstruation may cause red blood cells associated with getting into the urine menstrual blood.
In the case of certain medications (vitamin B12, rifampicin, phenolphthalein) possibly urine staining in red color that is not associated with the appearance of her red blood cells.If there are doubts about the child receiving such drugs, it is best to see a doctor to pass urinalysis.
Some kidney diseases, especially glomerulonephritis can be a long time itself does not show.The only symptom may be changes in the indices of clinical urine analysis, in particular the appearance of red blood cells in it.To be suspected, such changes must be periodically parents to pay attention to color, transparency and smell of urine, which may vary with disease.In this case, do not hesitate to visit a doctor.
12 Aug, 2017