Hemoglobin : what it is
Analyses And Studies / / April 27, 2016
- What is the hemoglobin
- What is hemoglobin
- Forms hemoglobin
- value determination
What is the hemoglobin
For the normal life of all cells in the body need energy.Its gradual release and accumulation occurs due to oxidation reactions of organic compounds with the participation of oxygen.During this oxidation reaction complex molecules of organic matter are converted into water and carbon dioxide to release energy photons, which accumulates in the ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and consumed for cell activity.
oxygen flow to the cells provides the respiratory system, where it diffuses into the alveoli into the blood abundantly supplied with blood vessels.Blood carries oxygen to all cells in the body due to the hemoglobin, it reversibly binds i
What is hemoglobin
Hemoglobin - a complex polymer protein molecule consists of a protein (globin) and the iron-containing portion (heme).Heme is a porphyrin, which includes iron ion (bivalent Fe2 +) - it gives a red color and the compound is directly involved in the reaction of reversible binding of oxygen and carbon dioxide.With this erythrocytes (red blood cells) which contain the protein, are able to perform the function of transporting gas in humans.
protein portion of the molecule consists of four subunits - α1, α2, β1 iβ2, each of them is connected with one heme iron ion.With this structure, one molecule of hemoglobin able to bind four oxygen molecules (O2) or carbon dioxide (CO2).The main feature of this transport protein is that after joining the first oxygen molecule, binding to other molecules 3 facilitated.
hemoglobin After the oxygen binding, or other compound, a reaction occurs that changes the heme structure, therefore identified a number of major chemical modifications of hemoglobin:
- Oxyhemoglobin - this option is associated with heme presence of oxygen in the arterial blood which flows away from thelight.Carboxyhemoglobin
- - heme contains carbon dioxide present in the venous blood that flows away from the body tissues.
- Sulfgemoglobin - appears in the blood after the application of some lekartsvennyh means (sulfonamides) due to binding to the heme groups sulfide, with its ability to perform the transport function is somewhat reduced, which can lead to oxygen starvation (anoxia) tissues.
- Methemoglobin - appears in the blood in cases of poisoning by nitrates, which oxidize heme iron and translate it into the trivalent form (Fe3 +), which is absolutely not in a position to bind oxygen.
- Karbgemoglobin - an option under which irreversibly binds iron with carbon monoxide (CO), which leads to a complete loss of functionality to bind oxygen or carbon dioxide (blocking carbon monoxide).This type of protein produced by inhalation of carbon monoxide (combustion products) which contained a large amount of carbon monoxide.Such poisoning is very dangerous to life.
Depending on the structure and the structure of the protein subunits of the isolated forms of hemoglobin:
- HbA - basic form, which is present in the blood of an adult person.
- HbF- fetal form, characteristic of the blood of the developing fetus, by the age of 2 years, the child's virtually no remains of this form, it is replaced by HbA.
There are also some pathological forms for which there are changes in the structure of the molecule.Typically such pathological forms impair the functionality of the hemoglobin in the transport of gases.The appearance of such forms is called hemoglobinopathies.
definition of such an indicator as the hemoglobin in the blood, is of great clinical importance for the diagnosis of many diseases.They anemia (level reduction) applies different hemoglobinopathies (the appearance of pathological forms).Determined the concentration, species and their relation to each other through various laboratory techniques.
also this protein in diagnostic surveys defined in other environments of the body, where normally it should not be.Since hemoglobin in the urine or stool indicates bleeding in the development of the organs of the digestive or urinary sistemy.Normalny level and determines the form of hemoglobin oxygenation (oxygen saturation) tissues of the body, which determines their functional activity.