Explanation coagulation , normal values as tested?
Analyses And Studies / / April 20, 2016
- When can assign coagulation?
- value parameters and interpretation of results
- How to take a blood test for coagulation?
When can assign coagulation?
For a complete picture of clotting appointed deployed (or extended) coagulation.
- Routine examination of patients with diseases of the blood, blood vessels or heart.
- In preparing the patient for surgery or tooth extraction.
- all pregnant women before delivery or caesarean section.
- to control blood coagulation ability when receiving anticoagulant agents (heparin, warfarin, Trental, Aspirin).
- When unexplained bleeding, hemorrhages or hematomas (this may be a symptom of hemophilia, thrombocytopenia, and other things).
- with varicose veins of the lower extremities.
- In diseases of the heart and vascular system, where a high risk of blood clots and complications associated with this (in hypertension, coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation).
- to control clotting while taking steroids, oral contraceptives.
- In diseases of the liver (cirrhosis, hepatitis).This is important, because the liver - an organ involved in the production of clotting factors.
- Acute inflammatory processes.
- the treatment of leeches (hirudotherapy).
The following table shows the main indicators of coagulation in adults
reference values (normal)
clotting time for Li-White
5 to 10 minutes
bleeding time by Duke
not longer than 4 minutes
bleeding time at Ivy
not more than 8 minutes
10 - 15 seconds
0,8 - 1,2
70 - 120%
15 - 20 seconds
0,35 - 0,48 units
76 - 125,5%
250,0 - 500,5 ng / ml
2,5 - 4,0 g
value parameters and interpretation of results
clotting time - a measure of the rate of formation of thrombus.By lowering this indicator (ie shortening clotting time) can assume the development of DIC, hemorrhagic or anaphylactic shock.By increasing this parameter (elongational clotting time) can be judged on inflammatory diseases in humans (pneumonia, pyelonephritis), autoimmune diseases, hemophilia, anticoagulant overdose.
bleeding time - determines if there is enough in the body of platelets and clotting factors.Diagnostic value has only lengthening the time.It can occur when thrombocytopenia (platelet deficiency), hemophilia and cirrhosis.
PT (prothrombin time).Prothrombin under the action of vitamin K, calcium and thromboplastin is converted to thrombin.If the indicator is higher than normal (over 15 seconds), it is possible to suspect a serious disease of the liver tissue, a lack of vitamin K and clotting factors.
TV (thrombin time) - a measure of the time of the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, the extreme step of forming a blood clot.If this time period is shortened, it is indicative of excess fibrinogen (this happens during pregnancy).When extending the thrombin time may be suspected congenital anomaly, accompanied by lack of fibrinogen.He was also a shortage may occur in hepatic insufficiency.
PTI (prothrombin index) - a percentage of the prothrombin time perfectly healthy blood prothrombin time to study the blood.Today, this analysis is replaced by the definition of the international normalized ratio.However, when determining the estimate of this parameter the results.Reducing index may indicate liver disease, a physiological decline can be during pregnancy.Increasing the index shows low rates of clotting factor, a shortage of vitamin K, heparin overdose.
Coagulation INR (prothrombin or factor).This, in essence, the same definition of prothrombin index, only with international unified control of raw materials.The analysis is, as a rule, to control the intake of antithrombotic drugs.The decline may indicate the probable thrombosis or thromboembolism, blood vessels, and increase - a liver disease, a lack of vitamin K, DIC, or the lack of fibrinogen.Adequately appointed dose of anticoagulant drugs is considered, if the prothrombin time increased by no more than 2 times.
SFMC (soluble fibrin monomer complex) - a complex, which are formed by the activation of fibrinolysis (blood disintegration).Increasing this parameter determines the earliest stages of the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation, thromboembolism, acute or chronic renal failure, sepsis, shock, preeclampsia during pregnancy.
AT III (antithrombin III) - a factor depressing the clotting process.Thanks to him, the process of thrombus formation is controlled.Lowering its level may indicate congenital defects, coronary artery disease, chronic liver disease.Increase factor occurs in acute inflammation and acute liver injury.
D-dimer - a component of anticoagulation system.His rise can occur in thromboembolism, hematoma, postoperative and says that many in the body dissolved fibrin.
Fibrinogen - a protein, which is the basis for the formation of fibrin.Its concentration increases in infections, tumors, trauma, burns, stress, pregnancy and menstruation.
How to take a blood test for coagulation?
an empty stomach!Many patients ask the question - on an empty stomach or not to donate blood coagulation.The point is that the presence of large amounts of blood leading to its fat Hilez makes incorrect analysis results.Therefore, for a more accurate analysis of the results should be done in the morning on an empty stomach, not earlier than 12 hours after ingestion.Dine better light food (fruit, vegetables or a glass of kefir).
Before analysis it is not recommended to drink sweet tea, coffee, juices, juice and alcoholic beverages.Permission is granted to only drink water.If the patient is taking medications that affect blood clotting ability (increase or decrease blood clots), he must inform the technician and the physician.Emotional or physical stress can affect the results of the analysis.Therefore, before blood donation is best to refrain from stress or physical exertion.