Coagulation : What is it ?Preparation and interpretation of results
Analyses And Studies / / April 19, 2016
- Coagulation - what is it?
- What shows coagulation?The main results and their rate
- Indications for coagulation
- Preparing to study
- Decoding results
Coagulation - what is it?
Blood is a liquid tissue of the body.It circulates in the bloodstream closed.To prevent major bleeding in a body cavity or tissue to the external environment in the vascular wall integrity violation exists coagulation system, by which thrombus is formed, covering the lesions.
also operates antisvertyvayuschey system that is designed to prevent intravascular clot formation without damaging the vascular wall.In general, these systems provide hemostasis, they prevent the development of bleeding, formation of thrombi within t
Coagulation - is a comprehensive laboratory study hemostasis.During the study identifies a number of indicators that enable a doctor to evaluate the functional state of antisvertyvayuschey and coagulation systems.
What shows coagulation?The main results and their rate
Determination of the functional state of hemostasis system is a comprehensive study.It includes a number of key indicators, which include:
- Prothrombin - is the main component of the coagulation system, this compound initiates the formation of a blood clot due to the transition of soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin (a kind of yarn), normally this index is 78 - 142%.
- Prothrombin time - the time period necessary for blood clotting in it after the addition of calcium-thromboplastin mixture (a natural process of thrombus formation activator), normally ranges from 11 to 17 seconds.
- prothrombin ratio - calculated index, which characterizes the ratio of the plasma clotting reference to the time of clot formation in the study of blood, expressed as a percentage, normally 95 - 102%.
- activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) - blood clotting time after adding her special reagents.This indicator is important for monitoring of coagulation during heparin (reduces clotting), the rate - 30 - 40 seconds.
- clotting Duration - length of time that is required for the formation of a blood clot.For capillary (fingerstick) blood it ranges from 30 seconds to 3 minutes for venous - up to 10 minutes.
- value of fibrinogen.Fibrinogen is a protein compound which is dissolved in a plasma state, when starting the cascade of reactions induced by thrombin and prothrombin is converted to fibrin, which has the form of fibers and the basis clot normal concentration of this compound is 2 - 4 g / l.
- Antithrombin III - a natural inhibitor of thrombin, inhibits its activity, thereby preventing intravascular thrombus formation.Normally, the concentration of this compound is 71 - 115%.
hemostatic system has a large number of different compounds, which are involved in the formation of a blood clot, its dissolution, as well as the prevention of intravascular thrombosis.Their determination can be carried out in-depth study of the functional state of hemostasis system.
Indications for coagulation
Blood Coagulation appointed physician to study the system of hemostasis in certain medical conditions, which include:
- Routine laboratory monitoring hemostasis in pregnant women - against the background of pregnancy in women occurs pronounced hormonal changes thatantisvertyvayuschey influences the system and increases the risk of intravascular thrombosis.Also, the re-analysis is performed later in pregnancy to avoid the possibility of postpartum haemorrhage.
- Preoperative and postoperative monitoring of hemostasis and prevention of bleeding in surgical wound.Especially important in this research volume surgery.
- congenital or acquired pathology of the hemostasis system in which developing shortage or excess of various blood components.
- Autoimmune disease - a pathological condition characterized by the formation of antibodies against the body's own tissues, in this case may be disturbed functional activity of the hemostatic system.
- Liver disease, cells in which the synthesis of all the components of the coagulation and antisvertyvayuschey systems.Varicose veins
- any location (preferably the lower limb venous vessels) as well as thrombophlebitis at which on the vascular wall may form thrombi due to abnormal inflammatory process.
- Pathology of blood vessels - occlusive disease (inflammation of the inner layer of arteries), atherosclerosis (formation of atherosclerotic plaques in the walls due to the postponement of cholesterol vessels).
also conducting coagulation necessarily shown to control the condition of the blood system at the time treatment drugs pharmacological group of drugs "indirect anticoagulants" (agents that reduce clotting).
Preparing to study
To obtain reliable results of the study of the hemostatic system should follow a few simple recommendations, which include:
- conduct blood donation on an empty stomach in the morning.
- night before dinner should abandon the products of animal origin, allowed the use of plant foods.
- just a few days before the study is important to give up alcohol, since it significantly affects the functional state of coagulation and antisvertyvayuschey systems.
- On the day of delivery of the analysis it is advisable not to smoke - nicotine is a vascular toxin has a damaging effect on the endothelium (the inner layer of the vascular wall), which indirectly affects the state of homeostasis.
- desirable to avoid emotional and physical stress in the study day.
Blood for coagulation analysis is taken from a vein in the average volume of about 5 ml.Then, it is sent to a special laboratory ware.The analysis results are usually available within a day.
Increasing values of most indicators of coagulation indicates increased blood clotting (except concentration of antithrombin III).Intensity of violation of the functional activity of coagulation and blood antisvertyvayuschey systems is determined by the degree of deviation from normal performance.
Decoding coagulation holds a doctor on the basis of the results, he concludes on the hemostasis condition that gives him the opportunity of a therapeutic or preventive measures.
When elevated levels of blood coagulation values doctor prescribes direct (Heparin) and indirect (aspirin, clopidogrel) anticoagulants.In the case of determining the increased activity antisvertyvayuschey system for the prevention of bleeding (especially when having to perform invasive therapeutic or diagnostic procedures, coupled with the violation of the integrity of the skin and tissues), the doctor prescribes blood components participating in the process of thrombus formation (plasma components thromboplastin time, prothrombin).For long-term increase of the functional activity of the blood coagulation system is assigned to vitamin K (menadione), which stimulates the synthesis of the components in the liver cells.
Carrying coagulation today is possible in most public and private health clinics.This blood test is often used as a violation of hemostasis can cause serious complications, such as bleeding or intravascular thrombus formation.