Encyclopedia Symptoms / / August 12, 2017
Cramps - This involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles, which occurs after an episode of abnormal electrical activity in the brain.There are many different types of seizures.Some of them have mild symptoms, but nekotrye very dangerous and requires urgent action.
Some seizures attacks may go unnoticed.Specific symptoms depend on what part of the brain is involved.They appear suddenly and can include:
- brief dizziness, and then a period of confusion (a person can not remember some things);
- changes in behavior;
- or saliva frothing at the mouth;
- involuntary eye movement;
- strange sounds like grunting and snorting;
- loss of control over bladder or bowel;
- mood changes - for example, sudden bouts of anger, inexplicable fear, panic, joy, or laughter;
- concussion of the whole body;
- a sudden drop to the floor;
- bitter or metallic taste in the mouth;
- tightly clenched teeth;
- temporary suspension of breathing;
- uncontrolled muscle spasms with jerking of the hands or feet.
Symptoms may cease after a few seconds or last for 15 minutes.Rarely do they last longer.
A person may be an early warning of the emergence of seizures through symptoms such as, for example:
- fear or anxiety;
- visual symptoms (flashing bright lights, wavy lines or spots before your eyes).
All types of seizures are caused by a sudden electrical activity and other problems in the brain.Causes of seizures may include:
- abnormal levels of sodium or glucose in the blood;
- brain infections including meningitis;
- traumatic brain injury in a child during childbirth;
- brain problems that occur before birth (congenital brain defects);
- brain tumor (rare);
- abuse of drugs;
- electric shock;
- high body temperature (especially in infants);
- traumatic brain injury;
- heart disease;
- Heat illness (heat stroke, heat intolerance);
- drugs - such as "angel dust" (PCP - grade cocaine), cocaine, amphetamines;
- renal or hepatic impairment;
- low blood sugar;
- phenylketonuria (PKU), which can cause seizures seizures in young children;
- toxemia of pregnancy;
- uremia related to kidney failure;
- very high blood pressure (malignant hypertension);
- poisonous bites (eg, snake bite);
- leaving the state of alcoholic intoxication for days;
- emergence from complications after exposure to certain drugs, including a number of painkillers and sleeping pills;
- emergence from complications of benzodiazepines (such as Valium).
Sometimes it is impossible to establish the cause of seizures.This is called "idiopathic seizure."Such seizures usually occur in children and young adults but can occur at any other age.Perhaps including family history of epilepsy or seizures.
Diagnosis and treatment of seizures
Most seizures stop by themselves.However, a patient at the time of cramps can be painful.
If you have cramps main purpose is to protect the person from injury.We must try to prevent the fall of a sick person.Put it on the floor in a safe place (where it does not hurt).Clean the area of furnishings and sharp objects.Put a pillow under his head.Loosen tight clothing, especially around the person's neck.Turn the person on one side.If vomiting occurs, it will help ensure that the vomit will not fall into the lungs.Stay with the sick person as long as he will not depart entirely from cramps or until it will not come to the doctor.
If cramp the child is accompanied by high fever, you need to slowly cool it with cold water, putting him on the forehead and body with cold water soaked towel.In no case do not put the child in a cold bath.A parent can give the child acetaminophen (Tylenol), when he is awake, especially if the child has a high temperature even before the spasm.
patient or parent of a sick child to see a doctor if:
- attack for the first time;
- convulsion lasts more than 2-5 minutes;
- patient long wakes from sleep or has abnormal behavior after the attack;
- another spasm begins shortly after the end of the first cramp;
- the patient had a seizure in the water;
- is a pregnant woman or a patient suffering from diabetes;
- in this patient there is something else at this spasm along with the usual seizures.
necessary to inform the doctor about all the episodes of convulsions in patients.The doctor may need to assign or change medications for a particular patient.
man, who was the first, or severe cramping, usually observed in the hospital waiting room.The doctor will have to diagnose the type of seizures based on the patient's symptoms.
Diagnostic tests will be done to rule out other diseases that cause seizures or similar symptoms such as syncope, transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke, panic attacks, migraine, sleep disorders and other symptoms.
Research may include:
- blood tests;
- CT or MRI of the head;
- EEG (usually not in the emergency department);
- lumbar puncture (lumbar or spinal or lumbar puncture).
Further testing is necessary if the patient has:
- new episodes of seizures for no apparent reason;
- epilepsy (make sure that the person receives the right amount of medicines).
no specific way to prevent all attacks of convulsions.However, the following tips may help control some of them:
- family members should observe and record any information about the seizures to make sure that the person gets proper treatment;
- to achieve a better quality of sleep, reduce stress, increase physical exercises and eating healthy food.Harmful habits can increase the patient had more chance of seizures.
patient should not drive a car, if they have uncontrolled seizures.In this situation, the patient should avoid this kind of activity, in which loss of consciousness can cause great danger - such as climbing to the height, cycling, swimming alone.