Enlargement of the spleen - splenomegaly
Encyclopedia Symptoms / / August 12, 2017
Splenomegaly - a pathological increase in the size of the spleen.
spleen - organ that is part of the lymphatic system.It filters the blood and maintains healthy state of red and white blood cells and platelets.
moderate splenomegaly (enlarged spleen moderate size) is observed in many infectious and autoimmune diseases, hemoglobinopathies, hemolytic anemia, platelets and red blood cells defects.For some infections - for example, malaria is very characteristic marked splenomegaly.Very severe splenomegaly, where the spleen reaches gigantic proportions, filling more than half of the abdomen, and sometimes can be observed in leukemia and other hemoblastoses.Weight normal spleen usually reaches 6-8kg..
See also: hepatomegaly
Many human health can affect the health of the spleen.For example, such:
- disease of the blood or lymphatic system;
- any type of cancer (cancer - a malignant neoplasm or carcinoma, a malignant tumor that develops from cells of epithelial tissue of various or
- liver disease.
Symptoms of splenomegaly include:
- the inability to eat a lot of food;
- pain in upper left abdomen.
Common Causes enlarged spleen ( splenomegaly)
- Bacterial infection. bacteria - microorganisms, usually unicellular, with unformed core and a very simple structure compared to the animal and plant cells.Bacterial contamination - the process of transmission of pathogenic bacteria from one person to another by bacteria or infection through contact with the external environment.Outbreaks of bacterial infections are divided into three groups: highly contagious;malokontagioznye;non-communicable.All organisms in their ability to cause infection are divided into 3 groups: the geo-pathogenic, pathogenic and opportunistic;
- cat scratch disease or granuloma Mollaret (benign limforetikulez) - an infectious disease that occurs after scratch, bite or close contact with a variety of mammals, especially cats, and is characterized by a moderately common severe intoxication of the organism, as well as enlarged lymph nodes closest tosite of infection.Sometimes, when the disease affects the nervous system.Pathogen - bacillus Bartonella.The source of infection - the animal's mouth.A person infected through close contact with animals - on his licking, scratching, biting, etc.Typically, sick children and young people, mostly in autumn and winter.There may be family flash when family members become ill within 2-3 weeks.From a human disease is not transmitted to humans;
- Infectious mononucleosis (or Epstein-Barr virus or cytomegalovirus, Filatov's disease, Epstein-Barr virus, monocytic angina, benign limfoblastoz, itomegalovirusnaya infection).Viral infection of human disease, the causative agent of which is a DNA-containing human cytomegalovirus from the family of herpes viruses, caused by a virus of human herpes type IV.While the viral particle can be found throughout the body, the virus infectious mononucleosis is most often associated with salivary glands.In a healthy organism, the virus does not manifest itself, but it can be deadly to people with immune deficiencies: in HIV-infected patients, transplant recipients, and also for all newborns.Infectious mononucleosis is characterized by high fever, sore throat, throat lesions, lymph nodes, liver, spleen and peculiar changes of the blood;
- Viral infection (or viral disease) - infectious disease and cancer, mostly caused by viruses.The main feature of viral infections in any infectious process - intracellular parasitism and cytotropism viruses, making them energy, metabolic and environmentally dependent on the host cell.human DNA viruses typically replicate in the cell nucleus, and RNA viruses - in the cytoplasm.Exceptions - poxviruses, which DNA is replicated in the cytoplasm, and the hepatitis C virus orthomyxoviruses the D, RNA which replicates in the cell nucleus;
- Parasitic infections (or parasitic, invasive disease) - a group of diseases caused by parasites, pathogens of parasitic diseases - multicellular worms and arthropods.Although parasitic diseases are part of infectious diseases, infectious diseases are usually treated separately, as caused by single-celled organisms - bacteria, viruses, protozoa, fungi.Viruses belong to the acellular form of matter.Among the arthropods disease in humans can cause a variety of insects, pathogens and opportunistic mites, centipedes, and occasionally reed.Among arthropods the most ectoparasites.Parasitic worms cause a variety of human helminthiasis: tapeworms - cestodosis, flukes - Trematodozy, roundworms - nematodes, parasites - akantotsefalezy, leeches - hirudiniasis.As random parasites in humans are found sometimes Nematomorpha Nematomorpha.Among worms dominated endoparasites.Parasites are temporary, like leeches, blood-sucking arthropods, and permanent as itch mites, lice, worms.Often among the parasitic diseases wrongly added and protozoal infections -.. Malaria, toxoplasmosis, etc. The life cycle of many parasites is very complicated.The causative agents of a number of parasitic diseases - for example, diphyllobothriasis, malaria teniasis - to complete its development using the two, and sometimes three or animal hosts of different species.Parasites can have on the human body different effects: blood and absorb nutrients, cause damage to organs or tissues, mechanical irritation, poisoning products of metabolism, sensitization to the development of later allergic reactions, weight for other diseases.Parasites can also affect the penetration of infectious agents in place of their introduction into the tissue.Parasitic diseases are quite common.Penetration of pathogens in the human parasitic diseases occurs through natural openings, usually the mouth, and sometimes the urethra, genitals, skin.Pathogens often transmitted with food and water through arthropod vectors, in contact with the patient, and in contact with the soil and some - by inhalation of dust.Clinic parasitic disease manifests itself in a wide range from subclinical to severe.Some parasitosis not have a major impact on the lives and health of people, while others may threaten their lives and significantly impair their health;
- Various liver disease;
- Biliary atresia (or biliary atresia) - this is a rare congenital abnormality when bile duct impassable or missing.The only treatment is surgery newborn portoenterostomiya to artificially create ducts or liver transplant.However, even with surgery survival rate low;
- Cirrhosis (alcoholic cirrhosis) - a serious disease of the liver, where the liver is enlarged or reduced in size, the surface is extremely dense, rough, bumpy.In addition, a number of indicators of changes in laboratory blood studies.In this disease, due to the long-term toxicity of alcoholic products structural parenchymal cells and liver tissue is irreversibly replaced by fibrous connective tissue or fat.The disease is divided into stages: acute alcoholic hepatitis, fatty liver and liver cell necrosis of hepatocytes;
- Cystic fibrosis (or cystic fibrosis) - hereditary systemic disease associated with a mutation of the gene for cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator.It is characterized by severely impaired function of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, as well as the defeat of the exocrine glands;
- Portal hypertension (or high blood pressure syndrome in portal vein caused by a violation of blood flow in the hepatic veins, portal vessels and the inferior vena cava).It is accompanied by an increase in spleen splenomegaly, ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, ie, hepatic insufficiency and varicose veins of the esophagus and stomach.Portal hypertension is caused by difficulty of blood flow to any part of this vein.Increase of more than 12-20 mm Hg.Art.It leads to an expansion of the portal vein.Varicose veins are easily broken, and it can lead to bleeding;
- portal vein obstruction (extrahepatic portal vein obstruction) - causes extrahepatic portal hypertension.Possible obstruction of any part of the portal vein.Connecting the veins increases, delivering blood to the liver from the portal vein, and take the form of a cavernous vascular formation.Gate Vienna, which became like a fibrous strand, among the multitude of small vessels barely recognized.This cavernous transformation develops mainly vein trunk for any violation of blood flow.Typically, as a result of obstruction of blood flow to any portion of the portal vein develop portal hypertension.Measure the pressure in the portal vein itself using transhepatic puncture.Angiography of internal organs or venography can detect obstruction site and to evaluate blood flow.As a result of liver biopsy can determine the location and cause of obstruction;
- Sclerosing cholangitis (or primary sclerosing cholangitis).Condition pertaining to autoimmune diseases of the liver.It is characterized by the production of antibodies to the bile ducts in violation of the outflow of bile cause of sclerosing cholangitis remains unknown.It is assumed the presence of an infectious agent like a provoking factor in immune and genetically predisposed people.Men get sick 2 times more often than women.The disease usually develops between the ages of 25-45 years, although it is also possible in small children.In 70% of cases occur in patients with concomitant ulcerative colitis - a chronic autoimmune disease involving the colon mucosa.It may also be a combination of sclerosing cholangitis with other autoimmune conditions;
- Blood Diseases .A diverse group of many diseases accompanied by disturbances of the structure or functions of the different blood cells - white blood cells, red blood cells or platelets, or pathological changes in them - increase, decrease or change in blood plasma properties;
- hemoglobinopathies - congenital or hereditary change or violation of the structure of hemoglobin, usually results in a clinical or laboratory changes in its oxygen-transporting function and the structure and function of red blood cells.The most common and well-known hemoglobin disorders - beta-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia and hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin.Haemoglobin disorders are classified on the qualitative and quantitative.There is a considerable amount of hemoglobin defects.Many hemoglobinopathies limited geographical areas of the planet.Haemoglobin may be asymptomatic, but sometimes it can be a manifestation of the disease anemia;
- Hemolytic anemia due to G6PD deficit (deficiency of G-6-PD, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in red blood cells).Hemolytic anemia caused by deficiency nesferotsitarnaya G-6-PD and instability of erythrocyte glutathione.This is the most common fermentopathy in erythrocytes from the group fermentopathia pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism.People with G6PD deficiency for many years can lead very normal lives, not complaining of any illness.The disease manifests itself only when in connection with any disease they take drugs with properties oxidants - such as sulfonamides and used to treat urinary infections, and some anti-TB drugs.All of these drugs in normal doses is well tolerated and does not cause side effects in patients with a healthy blood in people with an inherited G6PD deficiency can cause anemia gemolicheskuyu.Urine they become red or dark brown, the body temperature rises, the level of hemoglobin in the blood is reduced, and can disrupt kidney;
- Idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Overall hemolytic anemia - a group of anemia which are caused by the destruction of red blood cells over high.As a consequence - reducing the level of hemoglobin, hemoglobinemia or hyperbilirubinemia, splenomegaly, reticulocytosis, reactive hyperplasia of erythroid bone marrow, ie,those common clinical and laboratory signs, which are combined into one group different in the pathogenesis of anemia.Hemolytic anemias are divided into acquired and hereditary.Hereditary divided into three main groups: enzimopatii, membranopatii and hemoglobinopathies.Acquired hemolytic anemia is divided on the principle of specification of factors that caused the anemia: chemical damage, mechanical injury, antibodies, destruction of red blood cells by parasites, a deficiency of vitamin E. More common autoimmune hemolytic anemia - AIHA.This is a form of immune hemolytic anemia in which the antibodies raised against unmodified antigen own erythrocytes or erythroid bone marrow cells.All different cell AIHA antibody oriented in any case subdivided into idiopathic and symptomatic.AIHA is regarded as idiopathic, if it does not occur as a symptom or a result of some disease, but as a self-manifestation of the disease.AIHA is more common in women than in men.Self antigens of erythrocytes in AIHA recognized as foreign and produces antibodies against them.Idiopathic AIHA - a disease that is characterized by a secondary decrease in life expectancy of red blood cells, which is caused by hemolytic endogenous mechanism.Most often the disease occurs in women older than 50 years;
- immune hemolytic anemia .These anemias include 4 options: transimmunnye, isoimmune, autoimmune and geteroimmunnye.Transimmunnaya hemolytic anemia develops in the fetus c identical with maternal antigens, if the mother suffers from autoimmune hemolytic anemia.Antibodies mother cross the placenta to the fetus and has on its erythrocytes devastating effect.Izoimunnye observed when incompatible RBCs transfused recipient and donor cells.Hemolysis of red blood cells are exposed to the donor in the recipient's blood because the donor blood cells are destroyed at the same antibodies available to the recipient and the donor against the antigen.On the nature of autoimmune hemolytic anemia indicate only those instances when new antibodies directed against self antigens unchanged.Geteroimmunnaya hemolytic anemia is characterized in that antibodies directed against the antigen fixed on erythrocytes and not against erythrocytes.In the antigen-antibody reaction and erythrocytes are destroyed.Hemolytic anemia in the presence of red blood cells with a modified antigenic structure is also considered geteroimmunnoy.Erythrocyte becomes for the body "foreign", the immune system and organizes specific protection purposefully - synthesized antibodies against the modified red blood cell antigenic structure;
- Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) - heterogeneous clonal diseases generally characterized by dysplasia in the bone marrow, peripheral blood cytopenias, and a risk of transformation to acute leukemia.MDS - one of the most difficult problems of Hematology.This pathology is the older age group: 80% of cases occur in people older than 60 years.In childhood MDS is extremely rare);
- Polycythemia (or primary polycythemia, erythremia, Vakeza disease) - a malignant tumor of the blood system process associated with hyperplasia of the cellular elements of the bone marrow.In the blood, there is an excess amount of the erythrocytes, and increases the amount of multiple neutrophils and platelets.The cells have a normal morphological appearance.