Focal neurologic deficits
Encyclopedia Symptoms / / May 26, 2016
Alternative names: focal neurological deficit
Focal (focal) neurologic deficit - it is a problem with the nerves of the spinal cord or brain functions.This affects the specific location ( "home") - for example, the left side face, right hand or a small area - for example, language.
problems with speech, vision and hearing - are also considered as focal neurological deficits.Type, location and severity of the problem - can specify which areas of the brain or nervous system is affected.
In contrast, defocused problem is not specific to a particular area of the brain, and may include a total loss of consciousness or emotional problems.
focal neurologic problem can affect any of these functions:
- motion changes, including paralysis, weakness, loss of muscle control, increased muscle tone, loss of muscle tone and movement that a person can not control (involuntary movements - such astremor);
- changing sensations include paresthesia (abnormal sensations), numbness or decrease sensation.
Other examples of loss of focus features include:
- Horner's syndrome (or: cindrom Bernard-Horner, okulosimpatichesky syndrome - a clinical syndrome caused by lesions of the sympathetic nervous system, is recorded in dogs, cats, horses and humans Clinical signs: sunken eye.apple, small pupil, raised third eyelid and lowered the top): a unilateral drooping eyelids, lack of sweating - on one side of the face and the dissolution of one eye in the eyeball;
- people do not pay attention to the environment or to the parts of the body (neglect);
- a person observed loss of coordination or motor skills loss of control (ability to perform complex movements);
- a strong gag reflex, difficulty swallowing, and frequent choking;
- difficulty with speech or language difficulties - such as aphasia (difficulty understanding words or speech-building) or dysarthria (trouble pronouncing sounds), difficulty writing, lack of ability to read or understand written, inability to name objects (anomia);
- vision changes - such as reduced vision, reducing the field of vision, sudden loss of vision, double vision (diplopia).
All that brings damage to the nervous system or destroys any part thereof, may lead to focal neurological deficits.Examples:
- abnormal blood vessels (vascular malformation);
- a brain tumor;
- cerebral palsy (CP);
- degenerative diseases of the nerves;
- diseases of the nerve or group of nerves (eg, carpal tunnel syndrome);
- injuries, etc.
treatment and home care
Home care depends on the type and cause of the problem.
patient should consult a doctor, if he has any loss of movement, sensation, or function.The doctor will examine the history of the disease, and perform diagnostic tests.For accurate diagnosis, the patient is likely to need to tell the doctor:
- when the problem started and how fast it is changing;
- the problem occurred suddenly or gradually;
- it worsened, intensified - in seconds, minutes, hours, days or months;
- how long the patient - such problems;
- where it is localized (focuses) loss of function in the left arm, left leg, right hand, right leg, in another place (certain);
- any physical deficits are patient: loss of hearing, loss of movement, loss of strength, loss of vision, numbness, loss of speech or language problems, other (specific) problems;
- which still have symptoms of the patient.
diagnostic evaluation should include a detailed examination of the patient's nervous system functions.What tests are done depends on a variety of symptoms and possible causes of loss of nerve function.The analyzes and tests that are used are carried out to find the affected areas of the nervous system of the patient man.Typical examples of such tests are:
- CT back, neck or head;
- electromyogram (EMG);
- MRI of the back, neck or head;
- lumbar puncture, etc.