Encyclopedia Symptoms / / May 25, 2016
Alternative names: vasovagal episodes (brief episodes of loss of consciousness associated with the rapid expansion of blood vessels and slowing heart rhythms)
Syncope is a transient loss of consciousness due to decreased blood flow in the brain.The episode lasted less than two minutes, and the patient is recovering from it quickly and completely.The patient may feel light-headed or dizzy, fainting (which is also a loss of consciousness).A deeper state of unconsciousness is often called "coma".
When the patient unconscious, he not only loses consciousness, but also loses muscle tone and complexion becomes pale.The patient also before fainting may feel weak, or it may be vomiting.The patient may have a sensation in the background noise.
Fainting can occur when the following factors:
- very bad cough;
- constipation during bowel movements (especially if the person is severely straining on the toilet);
- standing in one place for too long;
Fainting can also be related to such factors as:
- emotional distress;
- severe pain;
- some medications, including those used for anxiety, depression, high blood pressure, allergies (these drugs can cause a reduction in blood pressure);
- the use of drugs or alcohol;
- hyperventilation (drafts, excessive purging);
- low blood sugar;
- sudden drop in blood pressure (eg, bleeding or severe dehydration);
- very sudden getting up from a prone position.
Less common, but more serious reasons for fainting include heart disease (such as abnormal heart rhythm or heart attack) and stroke.These conditions are likely to occur in people older than 65 years, and less likely in those younger than 40 years.
treatment and first aid for fainting
If the patient has a history of fainting, it is recommended to follow the instructions of your doctor about how to prevent such incidents.For example, if the patient is aware of the situation that cause him faint, you should try to avoid them or change.
When a person prone to fainting lies or sits, he should always get up slowly and calmly.If it is weak, you should tell your doctor about this before taking his blood test.The physician should make sure that the patient is when such a test is carried out.
Anyone can take immediate treatment steps when someone fainted.Here are our recommendations in such cases:
- check the respiratory tract and breathing.If necessary, start to do artificial respiration and call in cardiopulmonary resuscitation;
- loosen tight clothing at the neck of the patient unconscious;
- lift his legs above the level of his heart;
- if a person is pulled out, it should be turned onto their side to prevent choking;
- keep the patient bedridden for at least 10-15 minutes, preferably in a cool and quiet environment.If this is not possible, he should sit down and lowered his head between his knees.
patient should contact her doctor if he:
- fell from a height, especially if he is injured or if he has a bleeding;
- not regained consciousness quickly (within minutes);
- if a pregnant woman;
- is older than 50 years;
- have diabetes (check for medical identification bracelets);
- feels chest pain, pressure or discomfort;
- has an irregular heartbeat;
- a loss of speech, problems with vision or not being able to move one or more limbs;- Has convulsions, tongue injury, or loss of control of bladder or bowel (incontinence or bowel movements).
Even if it's not an emergency, the patient should be examined by a doctor if he had before that did not fall into a swoon when he often faints, or if he has a new fainting symptoms.He should see a doctor as soon as possible.
Your doctor will ask the patient questions to determine, he just fainted or something else had happened to health (eg, cardiac arrhythmias) and to find out the cause of syncope episode.If anyone witnessed the fainting episode, description of the event these people can be very useful.Questions can be such:
- this is the first time a patient is unconscious;
- when the patient faints, in some moments, or in any circumstances;
- that the patient was doing before this happened - for example, going to the bathroom, coughing, or standing for a long time;
- if syncope occurs during physical activity;
- as if the patient described the dizziness he felt before fainting;whether the patient felt a confusion of thoughts, etc .;
- if he had a weakness or cramps (muscle twitching), tongue trauma, or loss of control over bowel;
- whether the patient experienced chest pain or heart palpitations before you fainted;
- whether fainting when changing position arose - for example, the transition to lying after standing or vice versa.
diagnostic evaluation will focus on the heart, lungs and nervous system.Blood pressure may be measured at different positions.People with suspected arrhythmia, may need to be hospitalized for observation.
tests that may be performed include:
- blood tests for anemia or chemical imbalance;
- monitoring heart rate;
- Electrocardiogram (ECG);
- electroencephalogram (EEG);
- Holter monitor (ECG monitoring - method electrophysiological instrumental diagnostics proposed by biophysicist Norman Holter recording normal electrocardiogram of the patient during the day, when he is habitual physical activity, and is not at rest as is done in normal ECG, without any-or exercise);
- chest X-ray.