Encyclopedia Symptoms / / May 25, 2016
Alternative names: polydactyl, six-fingered
Polydactyly - this anatomical deviation in which a person has more than five fingers on a hand or foot.When this anomaly additional fingers may be normal in size or to be rudimentary (underdeveloped) state.Development
additional fingers or toes (6 or more) itself can occur without any other concomitant symptoms or diseases.Polydactyly can be inherited in families.This symptom includes only one gene, which can lead to several variations.
Although in most cases, polydactyly is not caused by genetic disorders, it can also occur in conjunction with certain genetic diseases, or combined with other congenital abnormalities of the musculoskeletal system.
more fingers may be underdeveloped and be small.They are often formed on the side of the little finger of the right or left hand.These fingers are usually removed surgically.Just to the finger tight binding arm may lead to the fact that it may eventually fall off if there are no bones.In some cases, additio
If extra fingers - big, it is quite possible that they will have to remove by surgery.
name the exact reasons that cause to the development of polydactyly is not always possible.
Due to the fact that this anomaly occurs in the beadle of the same family, one of the main causes of polydactyly is heredity.Polydactyly is transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern, with a low degree of penetrance (ie at the gene carrier and a healthy baby can be born well).The probability of inheritance anomaly is 50%.
sometimes polydactyly - it's just one of the symptoms of complex genetic or chromosomal abnormalities.Medicine are about 120 syndromes that may be accompanied by polydactyly.
But often establish the cause of a polydactyly, is not possible.There is a version that this pathology appears 5-8 week embryo development, it is due to the uneven increase in the number of mesodermal cells.
Their main causes can be identified:
- stifling thoracic dystrophy;
- Carpenter's syndrome;
- syndrome Ellis van Creveld (hondroektodermalnaya dysplasia);
- family polydactyly;
- syndrome Laurence-Moon-Biedl-Bardet;
- syndrome Rubinstein-Teybi;
- Lemley syndrome Smith-Opitz (Lemley-Opitz-Smith);
- trisomy 13.
Diagnosis and treatment of polydactyly
Most of the time this symptom is detected at birth, when he and his mother is still in the maternity ward.
doctor will have to diagnose the health of the patient, based on a diagnostic examination, family history and medical history.
doctor may ask the patient the following questions about the history of the disease and its symptoms:
- whether other family members been born with extra fingers or toes;
- whether a family history of any of the known disorders associated with polydactyly;
- whether the patient's symptoms or other problems.
tests to diagnose the condition:
- chromosome studies;
- tests for enzymes;
- x-ray fingers;
- CT or MRI;
- metabolic studies.
more fingers in the child are found in the first three months of pregnancy his mother by ultrasound (US) or more advanced test - embriofetoskopii.
When polydactyly is only possible surgical treatment.In cases when extra finger consists of soft tissue, and connected to the main skin finger bridge rudiment removal can be made in the first months of life.For more complex anomalies, you must wait at least until the child is 1 year old.