Bleeding from the nose
Encyclopedia Symptoms / / August 12, 2017
Bleeding from the nose can be a symptom of a number of diseases of the nose and other organs and systems.Bleed typically occurs in only one nostril, and not both simultaneously.
blood from the nose - a very common phenomenon.Most nosebleeds occur because of minor irritations or colds.They may scare some patients, but, in fact, they are rarely life-threatening.
mucosa lining the nose contains many tiny blood vessels that bleed easily.The air passing through the nose can dry and irritate the membranes inside the nose, resulting in formation of the crust.These crusts bleed when there is irritation of the nose from the inside of the tension or blowing your nose.
lining of the nose becomes dry and irritated at a low humidity, allergies, colds, or sinusitis.Thus, nosebleeds are more common in winter, when the virus is exposed vozdystviyu more than half the population, or the heated indoor air issushivaet mucosal surface of the nostrils.Deviated septum, foreign object in the nose, or other type of nasal blo
nasal bleeding occurs in front of the nasal septum - the tissue that separates the two sides of the nose.The partition contains many fragile, easily damaged blood vessels.This type of bleeding from the nose, well-trained technician can easily stop.Less commonly, nosebleeds may occur higher walls or deeper in the nose.Such nosebleeds often difficult to control.
sometimes nosebleeds may indicate other serious disorders - such as bleeding disorders or high blood pressure.
Frequent nosebleeds may also be a sign of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber or-Rendu syndrome).
blood thinning medications - such as Coumadin, Plavix or aspirin (Trombopol) - may cause or worsen nosebleeds.
reasons krovtecheniya nose
Causes of nosebleeds can be divided into:
- External :
- injury of nose or head:
- foreign bodies in the nasal cavity - mainly in children and mentallyretarded people;
- a sharp change in atmospheric pressure, for example, while flying on a plane, diving,.
- exposure to chemical irritants;
- allergic rhinitis;
- abuse of decongestants;
- the impact of environmental factors, for example, dry climate;
- acute infection of the upper respiratory tract;
- nasal polyps;
- granuloma of the nasal septum;
- structural abnormalities of the nose;
- the development of cancer in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses;
- hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia;
- Youth mucosal fibrosis.
- infectious diseases (influenza, measles, scarlet fever) cause severe nasal congestion;
- kidney and liver povyshat pressure and cause changes in vessel walls;
- vascular and cardiovascular diseases, ie mainly hypertension and sclerosis.These diseases are the most common causes of nosebleeds in adults (people aged over 70 years, high blood pressure and multiple sclerosis are the causes of about 83% of bleeding);
- diabetes complications leads to vascular changes;
- blood disorders and vascular circulatory system, which lead to pathological changes of the blood vessels and blood clotting disorders (leukemia, hemophilia or acquired coagulation disorders, for example due to lack of vitamin K, vitamin deficiency C);
- taking high doses of aspirin or other blood-thinning medications;
- substitute bleeding (some women's disease, in which menstruation is accompanied by repeated bleeding from the nose).
Recurrent nosebleeds may be a symptom of other diseases - such as high blood pressure, allergies, bleeding disorder, a tumor of the nose or sinuses.
Diagnosis and treatment
encourage the patient to sit down and 10 minutes gently squeeze the soft part of the nose between the thumb and index finger (so as to cover the nostrils).Lean forward to avoid swallowing the blood and breathe through the mouth.Wait at least 10 minutes before checking if the bleeding has stopped.Many nosebleeds can be a way to control and stop.Can help a cold compress or ice on the bridge of the nose.Do not put gauze inside the nose.
lie with epistaxis is not recommended.Within a few hours after a nosebleed patient should avoid sniffing or blowing your nose.If bleeding continues, sometimes a decongestant nasal spray (Afrin or Neosinefrin) can be used to close the small vessels and control bleeding.
patient should receive emergency medical assistance if:
- bleeding does not stop within 20 minutes;
- nosebleed occurs after a head injury.This can be a skull fracture, and in that case should be made to X-ray;
- nose broken (eg, deformed after a blow or injury).
encourage the patient to consult a doctor if: the patient or his child again was bleeding from the nose, especially if they are becoming more frequent and are not associated with a cold or other minor irritation.
doctor will perform a diagnostic examination of the patient.In some cases, the patient may be observed for signs and symptoms of hypovolemic shock.
doctor may ask the patient questions about the nosebleeds, including these:
- strong if the bleeding;
- whether quickly stops nosebleeds when you click on the nostrils;
- if the bleeding has begun for a long time;
- if the bleeding is often repeated;
- bleeding always occur on one or both sides of the nose;
- which still have symptoms of the patient;
- whether there is blood in the stool;
- whether there is vomiting blood;
- whether there is a bruise or bleeding fast;
- whether there is a tiny red or purple spots on the skin (petechiae);
- whether the patient takes blood thinners (Coumadin or aspirin).
Diagnostic tests that may be done include:
- nasal endoscopy (examination of the nose with a video camera);
- partial thromboplastin time;
- prothrombin time;
- CT of the nose and sinuses.
Treatment usually focuses on the causes of nosebleeds, and may include:
- blood pressure control;
- the closure of a blood vessel using heat, electric current or silver nitrate;
- wrap the nose;
- reduction of pain in a broken nose or removal of nasal foreign body;
- reducing the number of doses of blood thinners (such as aspirin).
The patient may be referred to Laura (otolaryngologist) for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
Home fans and evaporators, restore the necessary humidity, can help many people with frequent nosebleeds.Nasal saline spray and water soluble jelly (such as Ayr gel) can help prevent nosebleeds, especially during the winter months.