Acute ear infection
Encyclopedia Symptoms / / May 23, 2016
Alternative names: acute otitis media;infection of the inner ear.
Ear infections are one of the most common reasons for which parents have withdrawn their children to the doctor.Although there are various types of ear infections, the most common is called "otitis media," meaning - and inflammation of the middle ear infection.
Acute ear infection is short and painful.
Causes and risk factors
Eustachian tube to drain fluid passes from the middle of each ear to the back of the throat.If the auditory tube becomes blocked, fluid can accumulate in the middle ear.This can lead to infection.
Ear infections are common in infants and children, because they have the Eustachian tube is easily clogged.
Ear infections can also occur in adults, although they are less common than in children.Anything that causes swelling of
or blocking auditory tube, causes more fluid occurring in the middle ear, behind the eardrum.These reasons include:
- cold sinuses;
- excess mucus and saliva during
- infected or heavily grown adenoids;
- tobacco smoke or other irritants.
also more likely to cause ear infections if the baby is drinking water a lot of time lying on his back.However, the appearance of water in the ears will not cause acute otitis media if the tympanic membrane is not damaged before, before.
Acute ear infections occur most often in the winter.The man can not get an ear infection from someone else, but the cold can spread and cause ear infections in some children.
Risk factors for acute ear infections include:
- visit child care centers (especially those with more than 6 children);
- changes in altitude or climate;
- cold climate;
- the impact of any kind of smoke;
- genetic factors (eg, susceptibility to infection, which can manifest itself in families);
- not breastfeeding;
- recent infection of the ear;
- recent illness of any type (lowers immunity - that is, the body's resistance to infections).
symptoms of acute ear infection
Infants often the main sign or symptom of acute otitis media - irritability and inconsolable crying.Many infants and young children with acute ear infection is a fever (high body temperature), or sleep problems.This pus in the ear - not always a sign that a child has an ear infection.
symptoms of acute ear infection in older children or adults include:
- or earache (in the ears);
- the fullness of the ear;
- common diseases;
- hearing loss in the affected ear.
Ear infection may begin during the cold weather.The sudden outflow of yellow or green fluid from the ear may mean eardrum.
All acute ear infection include fluid behind the eardrum.
The doctor will examine the inside of the ears by using the tool "motoskop".Motoskop can show:
- coarsening region or redness in the ear;
- air bubbles or fluid behind the eardrum;
- bloody fluid or pus in the middle ear;
- hole (perforation) to the tympanic membrane.
test listening ear may be recommended if a person has a history of ear infections.
treatment of acute ear infections
Some ear infections are treated without antibiotics safely.Treatment is often painful, and the body needs time to recover.
All you need:
- dry heat to the affected area of the ear;
- drops of ear pain or prescription ear drops for pain relief;
- counter medications pain or fever - Ibuprofen or Acetaminophen.Do not give aspirin to children.
All children under the age of 6 months with a fever or symptoms of acute otitis media, be sure to see a doctor.Children older than 6 months can be viewed at home if they have:
- temperature above 38 ° C;
- more severe pain or other symptoms;
- other health problems.
If there is no improvement or worsening symptoms, you need to sound your doctor and find out whether antibiotics are necessary.
Antibiotics to treat infections of the middle ear
Viruses or bacteria can cause ear infections.Antibiotics will not help against infections caused by the virus.Many health professionals do not prescribe antibiotics for any occasion ear disease.However, all children with an ear infection before the age of 6 months are treated with antibiotics.
Your doctor is likely to prescribe antibiotics if:
- a child - under the age of 2 years;
- the child has a fever;
- a child is sick even some disease;
- the child's condition does not improve within 24 to 48 hours.
person should ensure that he or his child (depending on who is sick with acute otitis media) take antibiotics every day - whatever your doctor prescribed it, not stopping even when the symptoms disappear.If it turns out that the antibiotics do not work for 48-72 hours, you need to turn again to the doctor.You may have to switch to a different antibiotic.
Amoxicillin is commonly prescribed first of antibiotics.Other antibiotics that can be specified: Azithromycin or Clarithromycin, Cefdinir, Cefuroxime, Cefpodoxime, amoxicillin clavulanate (Augmentin) or clindamycin Ceftriaxone.
antibiotics Side effects include: nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.Although rare, it can also occur serious allergic reactions.
Some children who have repeated infections during the period from May to November, get smaller daily doses of antibiotics to prevent new infections.
Surgical treatment of acute infections of the middle ear
If the infection does not go away with the usual treatment, or if your child - a lot of ear infections within a short period of time, your doctor may recommend the insertion of the tube into the ear.
In this procedure, a tiny tube inserted into the eardrum ??.A small hole is kept open, allowing air to enter.Since the liquid can be easily washed off.Inserting a tympanostomy tube (this is a ventilation tube, or an aerator or a tube for pressure equalization) is performed under general narkozom.Ob ychno such pipes then falls themselves.Those that do not fall out, can be removed in a doctor's office.
If enlarged adenoids, can be considered the surgical removal of the adenoids, especially if the patient is still - ear infections.Removal of the tonsils, is not likely to help with ear infections.
Ear infections can be treated, but they may occur again in the future and can be quite painful.If an adult or child prescribed antibiotics - it is important to take until the end of all the medicine according to the instructions.
Generally, an ear infection is a minor medical problem, without any complications.Most children - a small, short-term hearing loss, ear infections during or immediately after it.This is due to the fluid in the ear.
Less - can develop more serious infections, such as:
- mastoiditis (infection of the bones around the skull);
- meningitis (infection of the brain).
liquid may remain behind the eardrum in a matter of weeks or months, even after purification from contamination.
Other possible complications include:
- rupture or perforation of the tympanic membrane;
- chronic, recurrent ear infections;
- enlarged adenoids or tonsils;
- the formation of an abscess or cyst (cholesteatoma - encapsulated tumor formation of the middle ear), chronic, recurrent ear infections;
- speech delay in a child who suffers from hearing loss - due to several recurrent ear infections.
Call doctor is required for a child if:
- pain, fever, irritability - do not pass within 24-48 hours;
- at the beginning of the disease the child seems worse feeling than when just an ear infection;
- a child - a high fever and severe pain;
- severe pain suddenly ceases sharply - this may indicate a rupture of the tympanic membrane;
- symptoms worsen;
- there are new symptoms - especially severe headache, dizziness, swelling around the ear, or twitching of the facial muscles.
If all or most of these symptoms - occur in children aged 6 months - this allows the doctor know immediately if the baby has a fever, even if no other symptoms are not present.
Prevention acute infections of the middle ear
Each adult can reduce the risk of developing acute otitis media itself or protect from it your child by following the prevention of ear infections:
- frequently wash hands, toys, and all things that are in use;
- if possible, choose a children's garden, which has a group with 6 or fewer children.This can reduce the child's chances of getting a cold or similar infection and leads to a lower risk of ear infections;
- give the baby a pacifier;
- feed the baby breast - it makes it much later and less prone to ear infections.But if you feed the baby from a bottle, hold the baby in an upright, seated position;
- do not expose your child to secondhand smoke, ie, inhalation of cigarette smoke;
- you must ensure that the child receives all modern operating at this virus, vaccinated.It is important to know, for example, that the vaccine prevents infection of pneumococcal bacteria, which most often cause severe infections of the ear and many respiratory infections;
- Avoid excessive use of antibiotics.Overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance.