The physiology of the pineal gland and its relationship with the endocrine glands
Endocrinology / / August 12, 2017
difficulty of pinealectomy without damaging surrounding brain tissue, failure of numerous attempts to obtain epiphyseal extract having a permanent effect - all this made it difficult interpretation of the experimental results did not allow to adequately study the physiological role of the pineal gland in the body and to confirm or exclude its endocrine function.As already mentioned, for the first time Foa was able to show that the pineal gland is related to physical and sexual development of the organism.
Foa removed the pineal gland in the chicken 3 to 5 weeks of age.In the first 2-3 months after surgery chickens significantly lagged in growth and sexual development of the control, and then began to grow rapidly in a short time, almost catching up with them.But the most striking changes in epifizektomirovannyh chickens attacked in sexual development, manifested in the rapid growth of the scallop, early awakening sexual instinct and the ability to sing.At autopsy in males with ekstirpirovannoy pineal g
Soon Sarteschi Foa confirmed experiments on young dogs, and in the future, many researchers have obtained similar results in epifizektomirovannyh rabbits, cats, mice, and other animals.Some researchers have found pinealectomy impact on the state of the genital apparatus of female birds and animals.So, Izawa in chickens, a Thieblot and Le Bars in mice observed an increase in the follicles in the ovary after the removal of the pineal gland.However, it should be noted that some researchers found no effect of pinealectomy on growth and sexual development of the experimental animals.If the assumption of the action of the epiphysis somatic and sexual development is correct, cause negative results after pinealectomy should apparently seek operations in the technique and experimental animals aged, it is also impossible to completely eliminate regeneration in some cases remnants of the pineal gland, the hypothalamus damage.The assumption of the inhibitory role of the pineal gland in the genital apparatus finds confirmation in the experiments with transplantation of cancer, feeding its growing animals or introducing them epiphyseal extracts.Thus, it was found that the implantation epiphysis female rats and mice causes them slowing the opening of the vaginal membrane delay ovulation cycle and ovarian follicle atrophy.
Similar experiments in males lead to testicular atrophy.The degree of changes in the reproductive system is directly dependent on the number of implantations and feedback on the age of animals - the donor and recipient.The highest activity against the inhibitory effect on the genital apparatus have epiphyses and extracts obtained from growing animals.However, this activity to some extent, apparently preserved epiphysis and in adult animals.So, Jullien observed inhibitory effect on the sex glands of guinea pigs of the pineal gland of the adult bull.
Experimental data on inhibitory effect on the function of the pineal gland gonads find their confirmation in clinical observations.Under the influence of the introduction of the alkaline extract of the pineal gland mentally ill women with normal menstrual cycle for 2 days before the onset of menstruation and Parhon Milco observed delay menstruation, and extract injection healthy women during the second day of menstruation caused their termination;Some women menstruating hereinafter absent for two months.In the literature there are indications of a good treatment effect of extracts of the pineal gland during metrorrhagia and pathologically increased sexual desire in women.
Question to the contrary effect of the pituitary and pineal glands in the genital insufficiently studied.In hypophysectomized animals can not detect significant histological changes in the epiphysis.However, the sharp increase in the absorption of radioactive substances (iodine and phosphorus) epiphyses animals subjected to removal of the pituitary makes to think about change in these conditions the pineal gland function.After the castration of animals, some authors have observed atrophy of the pineal gland, the other, on the contrary, showed its hypertrophy.Thieblot and Le Bars increasing activity of the pineal gland in castrated animals was observed only after the administration of testosterone and estrone in the least.
With regard to the influence of the pineal gland on growth and sexual development of the next generation of experiments unconvincing.With the introduction of the pineal gland extract 6 descending generations of rats Rowntree et al. Found a delay of growth of animals, but the earlier sexual development.However, observations Rowntree and his staff are in conflict with clinical findings suggestive of premature sexual development in tumors of the pineal gland when the body is exposed to destruction parenchyma.
evidence in favor of the direct influence of the pineal gland in the processes of growth there.The observed number of researchers by removing the pineal gland hyperplasia of the anterior pituitary is mainly due to acidophilic cells to the activity which binds to growth hormone, as well as the ability of the pineal gland extracts to remove post-castration hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the pituitary gland, gave reason to believe that the influence of the pineal gland growth, and possiblyand sexual development is carried out through the anterior pituitary.Under normal conditions of life of the growing organism, the active principle of the pineal gland, apparently inhibits pituitary function in relation to production of somatotropic and gonadotropic hormones.In the experimental removal of cancer or tumors of the pineal gland, when destroyed parenchyma organ removed this "brake" and the pituitary gland begins to produce in excess of somatotropin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which occurs under the influence of premature sexual and physical development.Experiments in rats demonstrated that young animals exposed pinealectomy, increases the secretion of gonadotropin and saturation extracts of rat pineal gland inhibits the effect on the sex glands simultaneously administered gonadotropin.Recently obtained data indicating the possibility of direct effect of the active ingredient of the pineal gland in the sexual glands.Thus, CI Parhon and staff isolated from the urine of animals infantile anti-androgenic substances epiphyseal origin.This is confirmed by the fact that there are no anti-androgenic substances in the urine of infantile animals exposed pinealectomy.
According to many authors, epiphysectomy causes hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex and a decrease in the excretion of neutral 17-keto steroids when administered to animals pineal gland extracts that in some way indicates a decrease in the functional activity of the adrenal cortex.In addition, pineal extracts remove biochemical changes (hyperglycemia, elevated levels of ketone bodies in the blood) caused by prior administration to animals adrenocorticotropic hormone.
Recently found that the pineal gland produces a special substance - adrenoglomerulotropin, which plays an important role in the regulation of aldosterone secretion.
With regard to reverse the effect of the adrenal cortex in the pineal gland is not clear judgments.As the removal of the adrenal glands, as well as the introduction of animals of ACTH and cortisone does not cause, according to the weight and histology, changes in the epiphysis.
With regard to relations with other epiphysis endocrine glands (thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, thymus), they studied still totally inadequate.It is believed that the active principles epiphysis and thyroxine are synergistic.According Parhona and employees, the pineal gland extracts inhibit the action of thyroid-stimulating hormone of the anterior pituitary thyroid.Removal of the thyroid gland in animals causes marked changes in the pineal gland, similar to those under age involution of the body: the proliferation of connective tissue, reducing the number of parenchyma cells and blood vessels that feed the gland, the deposition of calcareous concretions.
Introduction ekstirpirovannymi dog with thyroid and parathyroid extracts of the pineal gland eliminates many of the phenomena caused by the removal of the gland, and, in particular, increases in blood calcium.N. Pende by injecting epiphyseal drawing humans and animals constantly showed an increase of calcium in the blood.He came to the conclusion that the active principle (possibly hormone) is a synergist parathyreocrine epiphysis and apparently plays a role in the normal course of calcium metabolism.This circumstance N. Pende connects the appearance of stones in the epiphysis when involution.
epifizektomirovannyh animals have quite naturally rise in blood sugar is observed.The aqueous extract of the pineal gland, according to the observations some researchers, inhibits the development of hyperglycemia-induced adrenaline.In Romania, the Institute seemed isolated from the pineal gland hypoglycemic hormone with properties similar to those of insulin.The effect of this hormone is independent from the pancreas, as he is active in dogs, completely deprived of the latter.Introduction epiphyseal hormone hypoglycemic animals with alloxan diabetes significantly increases their survival.
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Influence of epiphysis on the intimate processes of protein, salt and other kinds of exchange not yet sufficiently studied.With the greatest regularity after pinealectomy a decrease phosphates, amino acids and an increase in blood proteins while reducing the total urinary nitrogen.
Given the characteristics of embryonic pineal gland and its direct relationship with the nervous system, the nature of the innervation of the body and the relationship with the endocrine glands of the above, there is reason to believe that the pineal gland in relation to the midbrain is in early childhood affect the whole complex of the endocrine glands (pituitary,thyroid, adrenal cortex, thymus), involved in the process of growth and sexual development of the organism.
It should be noted that many researchers attribute epiphysis ability to counteract the development of tumors.This opinion is based on the fact that the implantation of the pineal gland and its extracts to animals with spontaneous or intertwined tumors cause tumor growth delay, and sometimes reverse their development.After 2 weeks of treatment with the extract of the pineal gland bull three patients suffering from cancer of the skin, Berg-mann and Engel observed substitution of tumor tissue granulation, which was confirmed by histological examination.Saunder and Schmid in the treatment of patients with epiphyseal extracts 248 people with various localizations inoperabilnogo cancer was observed in most cases and the improvement of health condition of the patients (disappearance of complaints, weight gain, normalization of temperature, reducing ROE).The best therapeutic effect was observed in cancer of the breast.epiphyseal antitumor action mechanism is unknown substances.Some authors attribute this to the effect of the presence in the epiphysis antitumor factor, other, allowing the existence of antagonism between the pineal gland and the pituitary gland, the antitumor effect of extracts of the epiphyseal associated with the neutralization of the contained substances of growth hormone.