Encyclopedia Symptoms / / May 22, 2016
Alternative names: unevenness of the intestine, the lack of regular bowel movements
Constipation is most often defined as a delay defecation or defecation at least 3 times a week.It is usually associated with tough (rugged) chair.As a result, the patient may experience pain when passing stools or may not have a bowel movement after straining for more than 10 minutes.
Normal bowel movements are different for each person.A person can not have a bowel movement every day.While some healthy people - almost always soft or liquid stools, while others have no problem when the chair some days not at all.When a person
rare defecation or when the stool require a lot of effort, whereas constipation happens.Keep in mind that the output of a large, wide, or hard stool can tear the anus, especially in children.This can cause bleeding and may cause anal fissure.
Causes of constipation
Constipation is most often caused by:
- low protein diet;
- lack of (lack of) physical activity;
- not enough water;
- delay in going to the toilet when there is a desire to defecate.
Stress and travel can also contribute to constipation or other changes in bowel habits.
Other possible causes of constipation:
- colon cancer;
- bowel disease - such as irritable bowel syndrome;
- mental disorders;
- nervous system disorders;
- enlargement of the thyroid gland;
- use of certain medications.
Constipation in children often occurs if they hold back bowel movements when they are not yet ready for toilet training or are afraid to go to the toilet.
Diagnosis and treatment of constipation
Children and adults should get enough fiber in their diets.Vegetables, fresh fruits, dried fruits, whole wheat, bran, oatmeal - are excellent sources of fiber.To get more fiber, you need to drink plenty of fluids to help pass the stool.
For infants with constipation:
- up to 2 months: try to give the baby a little fruit juice (grape, pear, apple, cherry or prune) twice a day;
- up to 4 months, if the child has started eating solid food, try baby foods with high fiber content (peas, beans, apricots, plums, peaches, pears, spinach) twice a day.
Regular exercise can also help to establish regular bowel movements.If a person confined to a wheelchair or bed, it is often necessary to change its position.Also, you need to do abdominal exercises and lift legs.A physical therapist can recommend exercises that the patient can do.
Plasticizers chair (that contain docusate sodium) may also help.Bulk laxatives - such as psyllium, can help add fluid and stool volume.Suppositories or gentle laxatives - such as milk liquid magnesium may help to have regular bowel movements.
Enemas or stimulant laxatives should be used only in severe cases.These methods should be used only if fiber, fluids and stool softeners do not provide enough relief.
No need to give laxatives or enemas to children without asking your doctor.
You must contact your doctor immediately if you have constipation after a sudden stomach cramps, and a man - flatulence or diarrhea.In this case, in any case can not take laxatives.
also need to call your doctor if:
- laxative, used for a few weeks, do not work;
- blood in the stool;
- constipation alternating with diarrhea;
- rectal pain;
- acute or severe abdominal pain, especially if you also have bloating;
- cal thin as a pencil;
- unexplained weight loss.
Please refer to the child's pediatrician if:
- a child (except for those who are only breastfed) 3 days no stool, vomiting, and irritability;
- a child up to 2 months of constipation;
- from infants 3 days no bowel movements (call a doctor immediately if there is vomiting or irritability);
- a child holds back bowel movements and does not teach him to the toilet.
doctor will perform diagnostic tests, which may include a rectal examination, and will ask the patient about him or his child's questions such as:
- how long is the case of constipation;
- the number of days elapsed between two bowel movements;
- became worse if constipation, when it began to notice;
- what color, shape and consistency of the patient chair;
- whether there is bleeding during bowel movements;
- whether there is pain in the abdomen;
- which had surgery or trauma;
- what medications the patient takes;
- whether the patient is drinking coffee or alcohol;
- whether the patient smokes;
- which still have symptoms of the patient.
The following tests can help diagnose the cause of constipation:
- anorectal manometry (pressure measurements of the anus and rectum);
- barium enema;
- complete blood count;
- sigmoidoscopy (an examination of the lower intestine);
- chair of research;
- X-rays of the abdomen and other
Avoid constipation easier than to treat them..You must follow the same steps in lifestyle:
- drink plenty of fluids every day (at least 8 glasses of water a day);
- there are a lot of fiber;
- do regular physical exercise;
- go to the toilet, when you want, no need to wait for a long time.