Diabetes : Causes, symptoms, diagnosis , treatment , complications
Endocrinology / / May 23, 2016
Diabetes - is a chronic endocrine disease caused by an increase in blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia).Currently, the disease is not an obstacle to the full, active and capable of living in compliance with the correct mode.Since diabetes is based on a lack of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, you must carefully plan your day so that you can constantly monitor the level of his blood.
This article aims to introduce you in greater detail with the features of this disease, to learn how to effectively deal with it.
probably first discovered in yourself or your child this diagnosis, you have a wave of emotion hit anxiety and fear for the future.You began to search for information about all the features of the disease in the medical literature, understanding the responsibility for your life or the life of your child.All these feelings are normal.Over time you will realize that diabetes - a disease uncontrollable.
To begin, let's understand what diabetes is and what daily
sugar coming into your body from food, the main source of fuel for all cells requiring continuous supply of energy to carry out normal bodily functions.Through the blood glucose is transported throughout the body.However, it can not get into the cells by itself.Transports glucose from the blood into the cells a special hormone - insulin produced by the pancreas.
Diabetes occurs when the pancreas either can not produce insulin at all or produces it in insufficient quantities.In any of these cases, sugar builds up in the blood.This is a condition known as hyperglycemia.The result is that the body is not enough power necessary for vital functions.
types of diabetes
- Diabetes of the first type begins in childhood and is 5 - 10% of all diagnosed cases.Type 1 diabetes occurs when the immune system gradually attacks and destroys its own pancreas that produces insulin.As these cells are destroyed, insulin is produced very little in the end of its production is stopped completely.
Thus, the first type of diabetes patients have to use daily insulin.If they miss an injection, or make them too often, indications of blood glucose can vary, and finally get out of control.He either dramatically increased or decreased, which leads to a strong deterioration.
- Diabetes second type appears in adulthood, although it is now diagnosed in children who are obese.Symptoms may occur a little.Many people are unaware that they are carriers of the disease.This type of diabetes is more common than the 1st, accounting for the vast majority of cases (90-95%).It can be controlled with the help of properly chosen diet and regular exercise, but still can not avoid insulin.
- Gestational diabetes - this form of diabetes affects some pregnant women.Gestational diabetes usually goes away after the baby is born, but some women remains a high probability of developing the disease in later years of her life.
Symptoms of diabetes
Not all patients are the same symptoms, they are often not pronounced or long time do not show up at all.In some cases, the first signs of the disease is to defeat the yeast (eg, thrush).
And yet, the most common symptoms of diabetes are Type 1:
- frequent urination;
- Unexplained weight loss;
- Intense hunger;
- Excessive thirst;
- Tingling or numbness in hands or feet;
- constant feeling of fatigue;
- Very dry skin;
- Slow healing wounds;
- Frequent infections;
- nausea or vomiting;
- Abdominal pain;
- High blood pressure.
for this disease is characterized by the following symptoms: frequent urination, sometimes accompanied by a feeling of constant thirst, poor weight gain, or symptoms associated with the flu.If you or your doctor suspect on the development of diabetes, you must immediately get tested to confirm the diagnosis.
To identify the disease carry out the following types of tests:
- test for blood sugar levels in randomly selected time. This analysis involves identifying indicators of glucose in the blood at any time, regardless of the reception food.If the level is greater than or equal to 200 mg / dl (11,1mmol / l), then all signs of the disease.The presence of glucose in urine is further evidence confirming the diagnosis.Nevertheless, the presence of sugar below this level does not exclude diabetes.
- blood test to detect glucose levels, conducted on an empty stomach. This is the recommended diagnostic test for diabetes.It should abstain from food for 8 - 12 hours prior to analysis, the use of only water allowed.In order to ascertain the accuracy of the result, it is possible to carry out repeated tests in other days.
- test for glycosylated hemoglobin A1c . There is another kind of study - a test for glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, it gives an overall assessment of the patient's status and allows you to monitor the level of blood sugar over the past 3 months.
This simple blood test is usually done in a doctor's office.It must necessarily take place every 3-4 months
The rate of glucose in the blood
is normal following indicators:
- sugar level in blood on an empty stomach: 70-99 mg / dL (3.9-5.5 mmol/ l)
- The level of blood sugar 2 hours after meals: 70-145 mg / dL (3.9-8.1 mmol / l)
- anytime: 70-125 mg / dL (3.9-6.9 mmol / l)
considered acceptable fasting glucose levels below 100 mg / dL.Patients who have blood sugar levels in the range from 100 mg / dl and 126 mg / dL are at risk for a second type of diabetes, even if they have not yet manifested.
call a doctor should always, if you have risk factors and the manifestation of any symptoms of the disease, despite normal sugar level indicators.Often diabetes is dangerous precisely because it can not openly express themselves and hide behind the façade of other diseases.
Medical examinations for patients with diabetes
patients suffering from diabetes, need to undergo regular medical examinations, preferably every 3 - 6 months.It is important to monitor the dynamics of the development of the disease.
- Hemoglobin. glycosylated hemoglobin test will evaluate A1S blood glucose level over the past 3 months period.
- Kidney. Regularly inspect the kidneys.The presence of microalbumin in the urine may indicate nephropathy, and to be an early diagnostic sign of kidney damage caused by diabetes.This analysis is carried out since the start of puberty in patients suffering from diabetes for at least 5 years.
- Vision. Eye examination is conducted annually;in children affected by diabetes since 10 years.
- Survey feet. annually doctor should examine the feet for possible damage, corns, abscesses, check reflexes and heart rate.In humans, long time suffering from this disease, feet should be screened more often.
- Cholesterol. annually should be checked in the blood cholesterol level.
main goal of treatment of this disease is to keep the blood sugar at a normal or close to normal levels.This helps to prevent possible complications of the heart, kidneys, eyes, etc.
arisen in diabetes acute complications resulting from hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, can carry a serious threat to the lives of patients.In order to prevent critical states and diabetic coma, requires constant discipline, control over the content of blood sugar levels, regular intake of drugs, and it is important to have a clear plan of action in case of emergencies.
with your doctor, you need to work out a daily program of activities that includes:
- Nutrition Plan;
- monitoring of blood glucose;
Most people who suffer from diabetes of the first type, you must, as a rule, two insulin injections a day to bring the sugar back to normal.Many diabetics take three or four injections per day.Injections are not the only option insulin - a growing number of people currently receiving the drug through insulin pumps that allow constantly inject insulin using diffuse systems.
admission rate of insulin in the blood depends on the place of the injection.Patients respond differently to insulin, so insulin delivery method in each situation determines the physician.
Depending on the rate of absorption and duration of action are distinguished five types of insulin:
- Fast - acting in 15 minutes duration - 3.5 - 5 hours.
- Short-acting - operate in 35 - 60 minutes, the duration of 5 - 8 hours.
- average duration of action - working through 1 - 3 hours duration of 18 to 24 hours.
- Long-acting - acting through a 3.5 - 8 hour duration of 24 - 36 hours.
- Combined insulins - are within 30 minutes, the length of 16 - 24 hours.
methods of insulin administration
most optimum is the subcutaneous administration of insulin in fat fold with a small needle, made by special technology.It is forbidden to inject insulin into the muscle.Insulin is administered for 15 - 30 minutes before a meal.
for insulin following areas of varying the rate of absorption may be used:
- Rapid absorption - when administered in the abdomen.
- The average rate of absorption - in the shoulder area.
- Slow absorption - in the thigh or buttocks.
All insulin regimens should be discussed with your doctor.
necessary to give the skin recover after each injection of insulin, so regularly change the site of injection.
for insulin used:
- Syringe. easiest way to insulin.When using a syringe people often inject themselves abdominal crease in the sitting position.Not because it is the insulin will work more efficiently, and because it is simply more convenient.The needle insulin syringe has a small size, and the injection can be done in any part of the body.
- Insulin injectors. Injectors are needle-free means vvedeniya.Oni suitable for people who fear injections.They seem to inject a small dose of insulin under the skin by means of pressure.
- Shprits- handle. It reminds ink pen.At one end it has a small needle, the other - the piston for insulin under the skin.With dosimeter you select the desired dose and press the piston, the insulin is injected into the skin under pressure.Despite the fact that the pen syringe is more expensive than a conventional syringe, it has a number of advantages.This is a convenient and accurate apparatus which can be used in school and at work and, in any public place.
- insulin pump (dispenser) . This is a small device that provides continuous subcutaneous insulin, which is fed through a catheter inserted subcutaneously into the abdomen and an adjustable doctor programmed memory unit.
pumps allow more thoroughly monitor the content of glucose in the blood at all times of day.The pump is a very convenient way to deliver insulin to its lack of concern: the risk of infection at the site of catheter insertion, the needle may slip out of the joint area, clogged, there is a high risk of ketoacidosis.The pump also requires constant monitoring of blood sugar levels.
Despite these shortcomings, the number of people in preference, is steadily growing, as the pump allows the flexibility to build a daily routine and schedule, as well as to avoid an overdose of insulin.
Nutrition for diabetes
One of the most challenging aspects of diabetes management in a balanced diet.Work closely with your doctor will allow you to develop a diet for diabetes that could keep the performance level of blood sugar at a normal level.It should be thought necessary amount of calories, proteins and carbohydrates to maintain a healthy weight.
food you eat, increases the amount of glucose in the blood, and insulin intake allows it to reduce.A balanced diet along with taking insulin are able to retain all records in the normal range.
doctor - a nutritionist, considering your eating habits should be developed for you or for your child's individual diet.
Be consistent!Breakfasts, lunches and dinners, including light snacks must be carried out in one and the same time every day, do not skip meals.
use insulin every day at the same time.
continuously monitor blood glucose to adjust the insulin dose to the amount of food consumed.
Monitor blood glucose
measurement of blood glucose - the only way to detect deviations from the norm and allows to adjust the insulin dose and diet.Every day, it helps to avoid critical situations and prevent the development of serious complications
measurement of blood glucose levels should be carried out every day - even if there are no symptoms.How can I do that?
Currently, this procedure does not cause any difficulties.The modern market offers a wide range of blood glucose meters, instruments, to determine the level of blood sugar.This test can be performed at home.Talk with your doctor about what kind of device is right for you.The procedure itself is very simple, you will learn it quickly.Of the fingers a drop of blood is taken and placed on a special test strip, which you then insert in the device and wait for the result.All the data is required to fix in a notebook, recording the date and time of the analysis and blood glucose.The results tell the doctor.
glucose level to be measured up to 4 times a day, each time before meals and at bedtime.
Strive to ensure that the sugar level was in the range of 80 mg / dL - 120 mg / dL before eating a meal and 100 to 140 mg / dl after meals reception.Ask your doctor what blood glucose level is valid for you at different times of day, to adjust treatment as needed, nutrition and physical activity.
Follow technically sound device, follow the instructions on the application, write the expiration date on the vial of test strips.
Physical burden of diabetes
Physical exercise plays a significant role in the health of both children and adults with the first type of diabetes.As long as the level of glucose in the blood is regulated and there are no other complications, patients can fully engage in physical exercise, participate in recreational activities and sports.However, you must adhere to certain precautions during exercise, avoiding too much stress.Otherwise, in the long term blood glucose level may be either too high or too low (usually very low).
Before you begin to sport must be given a thorough medical examination.
Every physical exercise should be sure to have a warm-up 6 to 10 minutes.and leisure time, which includes walking and stretching.Thus it is necessary to measure blood glucose indicators before each exercise and afterwards.