Encyclopedia Symptoms / / May 20, 2016
Alternative names: bloody stools;bloody stools;tarry stools;Melena;black disease Hippocrates.
bloody stools, or blood in the stool is often a sign of injury or disorder in the digestive tract.Your doctor may use the term "melena" to describe black, tarry, tarry or bloody (red or burgundy), semi-liquid and foul-smelling stools.This usually unformed stool black, tar-like, with a fetid odor.
Melena - a key symptom of gastrointestinal bleeding from the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus.It is formed from blood, under the influence of the contents of the stomach and intestines.
Blood in the stool may be present in such small amounts that a person can not see it, and it is found only in the faeces.
When enough blood to change the appearance of the chair, the doctor will want to know its exact color to help find the site of bleeding.To make an accurate diagnosis, the doctor may use endoscopy or special x-ray studies.Black
chair usually means that the blood flows from the upper part of the
maroon stools or bright red blood in the stool usually suggests that the blood comes from the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract - the colon, rectum or anus.However, sometimes massive or rapid bleeding directly into the stomach causes bright red stools.
Power black licorice, blueberry, blueberries, iron pills, drugs such as bismuth may also cause black stools or bloody stools.Beets and tomatoes (especially tomato paste or ketchup) in food can sometimes make stools reddish.In these cases, the doctor can check the stool by chemical analyzes to exclude the presence of blood.Bleeding in the esophagus or stomach (for example, peptic ulcer disease) can also lead to vomiting blood.
reasons blood in the stool
At the top of the gastrointestinal tract, tend to cause black stools:
- abnormal blood vessels (vascular malformation - abnormal connection of the arteries or veins, including malformation of normal veins, or venous angiomu - or artery, passing directly into the veins, or AVM - arteriovenous malformation);
- tear in the esophagus from violent vomiting (Mallory-Weiss tears - occur in the lining of the lower esophagus and the upper part of the stomach, may bleed);
- bleeding in your stomach or duodenum;
- inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach (gastritis);
- lack of proper blood flow to the intestine (bowel ischemia);
- trauma or foreign body in the stomach;
- dilated veins (varices) in the esophagus and stomach.
In the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract, usually maroon or bright red, bloody stools cause:
- anal fissures;
- intestinal ischemia (when the blood supply is not supplied to the portion of the intestine);
- colon polyps, or colon cancer;
- diverticulosis or diverticular disease (abnormal bags in the colon, with the presence of a pathological process saccular protrusions of the wall of the colon - diverticula);
- hemorrhoids (a disease associated with thrombosis, inflammation, abnormal expansion and crimp hemorrhoidal veins, forming nodes around the rectum);
- inflammatory bowel disease (such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease, or - granulomatous regional enteritis - a chronic relapsing disease of the gastrointestinal tract of unknown etiology characterized by an inflammatory process, with the development of local and systemic complications);
- intestinal infections (e.g., bacterial enterocolitis);
- small bowel tumors;
- trauma or foreign body in the digestive tract;
- Vascular malformations (abnormal blood vessels - AVM).
patient should definitely see a doctor if they notice changes in their blood or stool color.Even if he thinks that the blood in the stool is caused by hemorrhoids, yet the physician must examine the patient to make sure that there are no other, more serious, the reasons for such a bloody stool.Children
small amount of blood in the stool, is usually not a serious symptom.The most common cause is constipation or allergy to milk.However, on this issue should consult a doctor.
doctor will take the patient's medical history and do a diagnostic examination, with particular attention to the stomach and intestine direct patient.
The following questions can be included in the examination, the doctor can better understand the possible causes of bloody or dark stools:
- accepting patient blood thinners (aspirin, warfarin, clopidogrel, Aggrenoks) or NSAIDs (Ibuprofen, naproxen);
- whether the patient's abdominal injury or rectum, or if he accidentally swallowed a foreign body (perhaps it got into his body during the operation);
- Do not eat sick black licorice, blueberries, blackberries, etc., if the drug containing composition of lead or iron saws;
- whether the patient is more than one episode of blood in the stool;
- whether the patient has lost weight in recent years;
- appears if a patient blood on the toilet paper;
- the color of the patient's chair;
- when there was a red (black) chair;
- What other symptoms are present - abdominal pain, vomiting blood, bloating, excessive flatulence, diarrhea, fever.
Treatment depends on the cause and severity of bleeding.If serious bleeding the patient may be admitted to the hospital for monitoring its status (diagnostics).If there is massive bleeding, the patient will be monitored in the intensive care unit.Emergency assistance can include blood transfusions.
following diagnostic tests may be performed:
- angiography (X-ray inspection method of contrast of blood vessels);
- test for barium;
- bleeding scan (nuclear medicine);
- blood tests, including complete blood count - the total, differential, biochemistry, blood coagulation analysis;
- colonoscopy (a diagnostic medical procedure during which the endoscopist examines and evaluates the status of the internal surface of the colon using a special probe);
- esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), or - a gastroscopy (research method esophageal mucosa, gastric and duodenal ulcers, endoscopy, esophageal, oral stomach and duodenum using the instrument - gastroscope introduced into the stomach through the mouth and esophagus);
- seeding feces;
- tests for the presence of H. pylori infection Helicobacter pylori (spiral Gram-negative bacterium that infects a variety of gastric and duodenal ulcer area);
- X-rays of the abdomen.
If the patient has lost a lot of blood, it may require emergency treatment, which may include:
- blood transfusion;
- the introduction of fluid through a vein;
- interventional embolization (this non-surgical procedure that is selective occlusion of blood vessels specially introduced emboli, performed by a radiologist or radiologists, which blocks blood vessels that can bleed);
- medications to reduce stomach acid;
- Possible surgery if bleeding does not stop.