Endocrinology / / May 21, 2016
Poisoning by drugs
Insulin is the principal hormone of the pancreas and is used to treat diabetes.
insulin dosing should be individualized depending on the severity of diabetes.Selecting the optimal doses of insulin produced under the control of blood sugar and urine.
In cases of overdose of insulin can occur a sharp decline in blood sugar - hypoglycemic syndrome (hypoglycemic coma).The rate of development of hypoglycemic state is dependent on the applied insulin.When using ordinary (fast acting) insulin, this state occurs rapidly, within a short period of time.In cases where medications are used insulin with a long (prolonged) effect - depot insulins, the onset of coma develops gradually.
Symptoms The main symptoms of insulin overdose are characterized by the following symptom: muscle weakness, easy fatigue;hunger, profuse salivation;pallor, numbness of the fingers, tremors, palpitations, dilated pupils;blurred sight, headache, frequent yawning, chewing;blackout, inhibition or stimulation, unmot
Treatment of hypoglycemic condition should be initiated immediately.In mild cases enough to give into the sweet tea, fruit juices, honey.At a complete loss of consciousness (coma) intravenously immediately enter a concentrated glucose solution (10-20 ml of 20-40% glucose).In the absence of an intravenous injection of glucose solution is recommended to introduce 0.001-0.002 g intramuscularly or glucagon subcutaneously 0.5 ml of a 0.1% solution of epinephrine hydrochloride.It should be borne in mind that the introduction of adrenaline may experience side effects -. Heartbeat, tremors, increased blood pressure, anxiety, etc. In general
forecast insulin hypoglycemic coma, with timely introduction into the body of carbohydrates, relatively favorable.Prolonged hypoglycemia, not amenable to the introduction of carbohydrates, treated with glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone) and corticotropin.Overdosing
Synthetic antidiabetic agents - agents that reduce the level of blood sugar and insulin are used along with or instead of the treatment of mild cases of diabetes.
Some of them (primarily sulfonylureas -. Butamid, hlortsiklamid, chlorpropamide, etc.) can cause severe hypoglycemic states.Unlike insulin, hypoglycemia induced by these drugs is characterized by a prolonged course.It develops slowly and imperceptibly.However, its duration may be from a few hours to several days.
treatment of hypoglycemia is not fundamentally different from insulin.However, given the protracted nature of hypoglycemia, to overcome it is necessary to make glucose infusion daily on the general state of the control.In severe cases, hypoglycemia is further added hydrocortisone - 0.2-0.25 grams per day.
These drugs should be prescribed with caution in the treatment of diabetes in patients with renal and hepatic insufficiency.