Tumors of the anterior pituitary
Endocrinology / / May 21, 2016
spread of the tumor of the anterior pituitary
tumors arise in the anterior pituitary gland often.Pituitary tumor area up 10.9% of all brain tumors including pituitary adenoma - 6.3%.Pituitary tumors observed in 17.8% of patients with brain tumors.More often there are small pituitary adenomas, subclinical.In the study of 1000 pituitary glands of people who died from various diseases and who had no clinical signs of endocrine disorders, found small pituitary adenomas in 225 cases.Pituitary tumors occur with equal frequency in both sexes, occur more frequently after the age of 30 years.
etiology of tumors of the anterior lobe of the pituitary
question about etiology of pituitary tumors is part of the general problem of tumors and is not covered in this manual thoroughly.
pathogenesis.There is experimental and clinical data, talking about the importance of hormonal balance and increased stimulation of the pituitary gland in the origin of his tumor.In experiment
hormonally active pituitary tumor in m
value increased stimulation of the pituitary gland in the origin of tumors proved his observations, in which the tumor adenohypophysis, containing large amounts of ACTH, occurred in patients with Cushing's syndrome - Cushing after removal.Earlier we described pituitary tumor eunuchs.
- Physiology of the adrenal cortex
- Chronic adrenal insufficiency.Addison's disease
- Pregnancy in patients with chronic insufficiency of the adrenal cortex
- blood supply and innervation of the adrenal
- Clinical evaluation of laboratory studies of the functional state of the adrenal cortex
- Determination of corticosteroids and their metabolites in urine
- Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of chronic adrenal insufficiency
- Biological effectsadrenocortical hormones.The biological effect of glucocorticoid
- morphology of adrenal
- Additional adrenal
- biosynthesis and metabolism cortex hormones adrenal
- Biological effects of C19-steroids
Pathology of tumors of the anterior pituitary
pituitary adenomas may have different sizes - from very small, detectable only by microscopic examination, to substantial, reaching a diameter of 40 mm or more.Grossly, they are presented as outlined formations, but microscopic examination they hardly differ from those of normal tissue, so they do not have the capsule, and strands of tumor cells directly transform into normal tissue.The most common pituitary adenomas are built of chromophobe adenoma cells are found, formed by acidophilic cells.Most adenomas are rare of basophil cells.Basophil adenoma, tend to be small-sized, do not cause deformation of the sella and compression of the optic chiasma.
chromophobe pituitary adenoma usually constructed from differentiated cells, but there are poorly differentiated tumors, consisting of circular and polygonal polymorphonuclear cells.Sometimes these tumors grow surrounding tissue.Described metastatic-dosing their lymphatic and blood paths.
Apart from tumors originating from the anterior pituitary, in the sella are tumor - kraniofaringeomy arising from the remnants of the epithelium cranio-pharyngeal duct or Rathke's pouch.These tumors are more likely to develop at a young age, are a solid structure or form cysts are rarely cancerous, are prone to calcification.Kraniofaringeomy located suprasellar often than intrasellyarno.
much rarer meningiomas, pituitary fibroids and fibrosarcoma, glioma and hemangiomas.
clinical manifestations of pituitary tumors depend primarily on their ability to produce hormones.By hormonally active tumors include eosinophilic pituitary adenoma producing growth hormone and causes the development of acromegaly.
Because of their small size basophil adenoma do not put pressure on the surrounding tissue.