Violation of skin pigmentation
Encyclopedia Symptoms / / May 18, 2016
Alternative names: hyperpigmentation;hypopigmentation
Violation of pigmentation of the skin is usually not a sign or symptom of a serious disease, and yet, it is necessary to pay attention if your skin suddenly became unusually lighten or darken without apparent reason.
Normal skin contains cells - "melanocytes".These cells produce melanin, a specific color pigment, - a substance which is synthesized from the amino acid component of protein when it interacts with ultraviolet (supplying his body sunlight), whereby the skin has a natural color.Skin with too much melanin in the form of a dark called "hyperpigmented skin."As the amount of melanin in the human body are shown in skin pigmentation disorders.Skin with too little melanin is called "hypopigmented skin" and looks a lot brighter normal skin color.
pale areas of the skin caused by too little melanin or melanocytes thyroid.Darker areas of the skin (or the area, which are faster and easier to sunbathe) occurs when a person has more melanin or ha
«Tanning" (natural dark color) of the skin can sometimes be mistaken for sunburn.This discoloration often develops slowly, from the elbows, fists and knees, and then spreads further.Tanning can also be seen on the soles of the feet and the palms.Bronze color can vary from light to dark (in fair-skinned people), where the degree of darkness depends on its cause.
Causes of skin pigmentation
Causes of hyperpigmentation - the following:
- history of skin inflammation (post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation);
- the use of certain medications, such as minocycline, or the result of side effects of drugs, including female sex hormones (estrogens) and contraceptives;
- endocrine diseases - such as Addison's disease;
- hemochromatosis (iron overload);
- lupus erythematosus;or
- exposure to the sun.
Giperpigmetatsiya, as a consequence of excessive melanin synthesis, accompanied by the following symptoms:
- the emergence of a variety of pigmented spots;
- the emergence of nevi, nevi, moles;
- symmetric form of brown patches called chloasma, buyout often appear on the face;
- manifestation of freckles exposed parts of the body as a result of exposure to the sun.Winter freckles usually disappear partly.
reasons hypopigmentation, due to lack of melanin synthesis:
- history of inflammation of the skin;
- nekotrye types of dermatitis;
- skin trauma such as burns in place, biting insects and various injections;
- some fungal infections (eg, herpes zoster or herpes, chickenpox);
- pityriasis versicolor (pityriasis alba);
- vitiligo - pronounced white spots with white hair on the affected areas.Vitiligo often formed on the skin if not properly functioning immune system.It is thought that susceptibility to vitiligo can be inherited.
- albinism, developing as a consequence of the impossibility of the normal synthesis of melanin leads to the effect that the partial or complete absence of the pigment of the skin, iris, hair.Such people are called - albinos, their distinctive features is a light, almost white skin, eyebrows, hair, color eyelashes and red color of eyes;
- phenylketonuria also weakens the pigmentation of the skin, hair and iris;
- tuberous sclerosis, congenital disabilities manifested by white patches on the skin, which are located on the trunk and buttocks, they differ in a small amount of melanin, oval, oval-elongated shape.
pigmentation changes may be indicative of a very serious disease of the body, napimer:
- Melasma, or it is also called pigment spots can be a sign of pregnancy, as well as a number of sexually transmitted diseases in women, occurred due to incorrect handling of the ovaries, such as polycystic ovaries,signal nepravilnoyrabote liver infection with worms.Be sure to pay attention to your EALTH if age spots begin to coalesce and cover quite large areas of the skin.For example, the pronounced dark spots around the mouth often talk about starting polyposis of the gastrointestinal tract.Older people tend to appear large spots on the upper surface of the hands.However, the appearance of such spots under the age of 50 years can mean a premature aging of the organism.
- Birthmarks or moles are usually present in any person and is not a sign of any disease.In newborn birthmarks can not be, they are formed in the first years of life, and eventually continue to emerge.Birthmarks are also often occur during menopause, puberty, during pregnancy.There are colorless birthmarks, which are beginning to darken with age.Another case, a mole that abruptly changed color or changed in size.Here we can talk already about melanomas, tumors that contain melanin.Often, the most obvious sign of skin cancer - is a violation of pigmentation birthmarks or moles.
diagnosis and treatment of skin pigmentation
for skin lightening creams available must be used.If the patient uses these creams, it would need to carefully follow the instructions and do not use the cream for more than 3 consecutive weeks.Dark skin requires more care.Cosmetics may also help cover a discoloration of the skin.
recommend avoiding excess sun exposure to skin and always use sunscreen.
skin can remain in humans abnormally dark even after treatment.
advise the patient to see a doctor, if he:
- skin discoloration, which vyzyvaet serious concern;
- persistent, unexplained darkening or lightening of the skin;
- Any skin sore or lesion that changes shape, size or color - all of which can be a sign of skin cancer.
doctor will have to perform a diagnostic examination and may ask the patient about his symptoms of questions, including such:
- when it began to develop skin discoloration;
- whether it suddenly began to develop;
- whether the patient's condition deteriorated;if so, how quickly;
- whether the changes spread to other parts of the body;
- what medicines the patient takes;
- whether in the patient's family has somebody similar problem;
- how often the patient is the sun;Whether the patient uses the sun lamp or solarium visits there;
- what is the diet of the patient;
- which still have symptoms of the patient - for example, if he had a rash or skin lesions.
tests that can be done:
- a test for the hormone adrenocorticotropin;
- skin biopsy;
- the study of the thyroid gland;
- control analysis (Wood's lamp).
doctor may creams, ointments, plastic surgical operation to replace or phototherapy of the skin - depending on the patient's skin.