Increased liver - hepatomegaly
Encyclopedia Symptoms / / May 17, 2016
hepatomegaly - swelling or abnormal enlarged liver.
infections, parasites, tumors, anemia, toxic conditions, chronic disease, heart failure, congenital heart disease and metabolic disorders can cause enlargement of the liver.
If the liver and spleen are enlarged, it is called "hepatosplenomegaly"..
See also: Splenomegaly
The lower edge of the liver is usually detectable only in the lower edge of the ribs on the right side.the liver edge is usually thin.It can not be palpated (tangible hand fingers) below the edges of the region, except in cases when the patient takes a deep breath.
reasons liver enlargement ( hepatomegaly)
The liver is involved in many bodily functions.It depends on many conditions that may cause enlargement of the liver, including, such as:
- Heart failure;
- glycogenosis (group of syndromes emerging because of genetic defects of enzymes involved in the synthesis or cleavage of glycogen -. The main storage form of glucose in animal cells Glyco
- Hepatitis (in general, acute and chronic, diffuse, apply to the whole body, inflammatory liver disease of various etiologies
- Hepatocellular carcinoma (malignant hepatoma, epithelioma liver, hepatocellular or hepatocellular carcinoma, liver cancer);.
- hereditary fructose intolerance (hereditary disease in which the body can not metabolize fructose from foods, because they do not produce enzymes "fosfofruktaldolaza" as a result, the body accumulates metabolite of fructose, fructose-1-phosphate, which blocks the formation of glycogen and conversion.glucose, necessary for the body energy expenditure);
- Infectious mononucleosis (or disease Filatov, Epstein-Barr virus, angina monocytic, benign limfoblastoz - an acute viral disease characterized by high fever, sore throat, defeat the throat,.lymph nodes, liver, spleen and peculiar changes of blood composition.Infectious mononucleosis caused by a virus of human herpes type IV.It is also called "kissing disease", as the transmission of the virus in humans can occur during a kiss, saliva);
- Leukemia (or leukemia, aleukemia, leukemia wrong "blood cancer" - a large group of different etiology clonal neoplastic, malignant diseases and tumors of the blood system in leukemia malignant clone can occur from hematopoietic immature bone marrow cells, and.. of ripening and mature blood cells leukemia can be acute or chronic in nature arises as a result of destruction of the bone marrow tissues responsible for the production of blood cells, resulting in enhanced development of rapidly proliferating, and does not stop the development of leukemic white cells).;
- NPD (a hereditary disease, which is caused by a violation of lipid metabolism and accumulation in the liver, spleen, lungs, bone marrow and brain lipids -. A large group of natural organic compounds consisting of fats and fat-like substances disease is characterized autosomalno-. recessive inheritance are three types of the disease: a, B and C. Niemann-Pick disease belongs to a fatal hereditary disorders of metabolism of a large group of lysosomal storage diseases Main symptoms of the disease are associated with the bodies that accumulate harmful substances to the body).
- Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC -.. Autoimmune, slowly progressive liver disease, occurring predominantly in women is characterized by progressive irreversible destruction of the intrahepatic bile duct due to the occurrence of the inflammatory process, most commonly develops between the ages of 40 to 50 years old and extremely rarepeople younger than 25 years. histologically note autoimmune destruction of the intrahepatic bile duct and inflammatory changes in portal tracts. This leads to toxic substances retention in the liver and impaired bile flow, which is the cause of fibrosis, cirrhosis, decreased liver function and liver failure. in the primarybiliary cirrhosis in 90-95% of patients, often long before the first clinical signs of the disease, there are mitochondrial antibodies - lesions that can become a cause of stagnation of bile cholestasis and significant liver function abnormalities or otherwise, liver failure);
- Syndrome Reye (Reye's syndrome, white liver disease, acute hepatic encephalopathy -. A rare and very dangerous, acute, often life-threatening condition with a possible high mortality arises mainly in children and adolescents, usually following a viral infection, when theirthe treatment of fever of viral origin - the flu, measles, chicken pox, at least - with enterovirus infection -. containing acetylsalicylic acid drugs is characterized by rapidly progressing due to cerebral edema encephalopathy and the development of fatty liver syndrome is accompanied by hyperammonemia, a marked increase in levels of AST, ALT serum.. blood at normal levels of bilirubin in the basis of the syndrome is fatty liver with coagulopathy, as well - a significant increase in transaminases levels, hypoglycemia, increased levels of fatty acids and the content of ammonia, the formation of toxic metabolites that cause demyelination, neuronal damage, brain swelling.Manifested by nausea, vomiting, delirium, seizures, coma.Some patients accompanied by a hereditary deficiency of mitochondrial enzymes involved in the metabolism of fatty acids);
- Sarcoidosis (or disease Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann - a systemic disease in which can affect many organs and systems -. Especially the lungs characterized by the formation in the affected tissues of granulomas - limited foci of inflammation in the shape of dense knots of varying sizes,which appear in the microscopic study of sarcoidosis most commonly affects the lungs, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, at least -. bone, skin, organs of vision, etc. The reason is unclear disease sarcoidosis -. not a contagious disease, it is not transmitted to others is developing sarcoidosis.usually in young and middle age, often -. women Sarcoidosis is a long time may be asymptomatic and detected by accident -. for example, when X-rays or x-rays of the chest in the treatment used mainly glucocorticoid hormones Given that the disease is able to sometimes.self-healing, in some cases, the doctor may be limited to the supervision and prescribe treatment);
- Sclerosing cholangitis (or primary sclerosing cholangitis, PSC -. A condition which is relevant to an autoimmune liver disease characterized by the production of antibodies to the bile ducts in violation of the outflow of bile cause of sclerosing cholangitis remains unknown is assumed the presence of an infectious agent like a provoking factor in immune.. and genetically predisposed people men get sick 2 times more often than women The disease usually develops between the ages of 25-45 years old, although it is also possible to have small children in 70% of patients have concomitant ulcerative colitis -.. a chronic autoimmune disease, including colon mucosa. intestine can also be a combination of sclerosing cholangitis with other autoimmune conditions);
- liver steatosis (or steatosis, fatty liver, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH - the most common steatosis, in which in the liver cells there is fat accumulation Generally, fat accumulation may be a liver reaction to various toxic effects in some cases... this process is associated with various pathological states and diseases of body fat in the liver is often accumulated because of problems with the metabolism - for example: diabetes, obesity and high triglyceride levels, i.e., natural organic compounds from lipids with esters of fatty acids and glycerol.nonalcoholic steatohepatitis - inflammation of the liver on the background of its fatty degeneration There are three types of the disease, often combined with each other: alcoholic liver disease, drug steatohepatitis and metabolic steatohepatitis for NASH is characterized by increased activity of liver enzymes in the blood and morphological changes in the liver, like..changes in alcoholic hepatitis - inflammatory response and fatty degeneration.At the same time, NASH patients do not drink alcohol in quantities that can cause liver damage.The main reason for the development of hepatic steatosis - increased content in the liver of free fatty acids.Although hepatic steatosis in most cases are asymptomatic and benign, often from him develop liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension and liver failure);
- tumor metastasis. This condition can usually find a doctor.The patient may not be aware of his swollen liver or spleen.
symptoms of liver enlargement ( hepatomegaly)
- Jaundice - the most prominent symptom of hepatitis, which usually occurs when it is not processed in the liver bilirubin enters the bloodstream and gives the skin a yellowish hue.Although frequent and anicteric forms of hepatitis.
- Feeling of "lump" in the right upper quadrant, particularly when changing
body position - chair Violations (constipation or diarrhea)
- The emergence of "liver Stars"
- abdomen Increased
Diagnostics increaseliver ( hepatomegaly)
physician must examine the patient and ask him questions about his medical history:
- whether the patient noticed excessive fullness or lump in the abdomen;
- which still have symptoms of the patient;
- whether the patient's abdominal pain;
- whether the patient's skin yellowing (jaundice);
- whether the patient vomiting;
- whether the patient chair unusual color or pale;
- whether the patient high fever;
- what medicines the patient takes;
- how much alcohol the patient drinks.
tests to determine the cause hepatomegaly vary depending on the suspected cause, but may include:
- X-rays of the abdominal cavity;
- abdominal ultrasound (it can be done to confirm the diagnosis if the doctor during a medical examination finds that the liver of the patient is increased);
- CT of the abdominal cavity;
- analysis of liver function, including tests for blood clotting;
- MRI of the abdominal cavity.
increase liver Treatment ( hepatomegaly)
Treatment depends on the cause and severity of the condition.If you can, then treat the underlying disease, but if this is not possible, the treatment is symptomatic, aimed at reducing symptoms and maintenance of normal liver function.This treatment is important to respect gentle mode of life and physical activity, proper diet.