Diseases of the adrenal gland and the adrenal cortex
Endocrinology / / May 19, 2016
adrenal first description was given in 1563 by Bartolomeo Eustace (V. Eustachius).However, a more detailed structure of these glands, as well as their function, have long remained unknown.
The adrenal glands are paired organ located above the upper pole of the kidneys, almost at the level of XI thoracic vertebrae.
average weight of both adrenal glands is approximately 6-10 of the adrenal Dimensions vary: the length is 40-60 mm, width - 20-30 mm, and thickness - 2-8 mm.
right adrenal gland has a shape approximating to a flat triangle;he touches the inferior vena cava and the liver.The left adrenal gland is more similar in configuration lunate.Its lower surface in contact with it and pancreas splenic vessels.
has a groove where it leaves the gland central Vienna on the front surface of the adrenal glands.The adrenal glands are included in the fat tissue and are surrounded by the renal fascia, which tightly connected and partially covered by peritoneum.Iron has a connective capsule, which strands penet
In the context of the adrenal gland has two layers - the outer, yellow, cortex and inner - dark red-brown color, the brain layer of approximately 1/10 of cortex tissue.
cortical substance consists of three zones, which have more in 1866, Arnold.
outer zone - glomerular (zona glomerulosa) - is the smallest compared to the other two zones.Sometimes this area is subtle and may not be available in some areas cut.This zone consists of the cells that line the small, ill-defined group.Cells glomerular zones have different appearances, including small izodiametricheskie cells poor lipids, and large, coarsely vacuolated cells rich in lipids, mitochondria and enzymes (dehydrogenase).The cell nuclei are small and densely stained with hematoxylin.Stroma of the zone consists of fuksinofilnyh membranes reinforced argyrophil fibers.The latter, forming a network-like baskets, surrounded by separate groups of cells.
average, the widest zone - beam (zona fasciculata), composed of cells arranged in the form of beams, radially between glomerular and netted areas.The width of this area is variable and is typically 1/2 the width of the entire cortex.Beam area does not have a sharp boundary with a mesh area.Cells its relatively large size, irregular shape occasionally contain one or two circular or oval nucleus, which is often visible nucleoli.cell cytoplasm contains a few mitochondria and enzymes.Stroma rich argyrophil fibers.
The innermost zone is directly in contact with the medulla, -setchataya (zona reticularis).The width of this zone, as well as the beam, changeable.its cells are arranged in a wrong network and contain a considerable amount of dark brown pigment.It is believed that the pigment granules are identical with lipofuscin and reflect degenerative processes or age - "wear pigment".Cells zona reticularis shape similar to the zona fasciculata cells, but smaller and often have pyknotic nuclei.cell cytoplasm is rich in mitochondria and enzymes.Strom thin, delicate, but thicker than the two other zones.
cortical cells contain large amounts of lipoid granules of various sizes.The main their mass constitute the birefringent holesterinestery, neutral fat and fatty acids.Lipoid substances are distributed unevenly in the cortical tissue.The greatest number of them, usually in the form of large droplets, is concentrated in the beam area.The paraffin
preparations during processing lipids washed, and then drops their contours are visible as bright vacuoles.In such cases, the cells rich in lipoid substances seem to be "light" foamy.The cells also do not contain lipids, seem "dark", the compact.
mitochondria, according to the latest data, are found in all layers of the adrenal cortex, as they are seen in the medulla, which has no lipids.Symington showed that mitosis in human adrenal observed mainly in compact cells in the light of their little cells (painting by Altmann and electron microscopy).
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adrenal medulla consists of two types of cells: the sympathetic ganglion cells and a significant number of polymorphic, granular, chromaffin or feohromnyh cells arranged in the form of bands or groups.Last characterized by brown color of their granules salts of chromic acid.Cells are in the loops of connective stroma.
two types of secretory cells can be detected by histochemical processing adrenal medulla.Parenchymal chromaffin cells, giving bright fluorescence positive and negative reaction on Gomory acid phosphatase are associated with the secretion of norepinephrine and other parenchymal cells that detect weak fluorescence and positive for acid phosphatase, secrete adrenaline.