Fever and fever
Encyclopedia Symptoms / / May 16, 2016
Alternative names: fever;hyperthermia;pyrexia
High body temperature (fever, fever) is a temporary increase in body temperature and immune response in response to some disease.
child has a fever when his temperature is above par, or one of these levels:
- 38 ° C - measured rectally;
- 37,5 ° C - izmeryaetsyaoralno;
- 37,2 ° C - measured axillary.
An adult probably fever - above 37,2-37,5 ° C, depending on the time of day.
Normal body temperature can change on any given day.It usually increases in the evening.
Other factors that can affect the body temperature:
- the second part of the woman's menstrual cycle, the temperature may rise by 1 degree or more;
- physical activity, strong emotion, eating, heavy clothing, medications, high room air temperature and high humidity.
High body temperature is an important part of protecting the body fight infections.Most bacteria and viruses that cause infections in people thrive at high temperatures.Many babies and children have a high temperature at
Brain damage from elevated body temperature usually does not happen if the high body temperature is over 42 ° C, and will not go above.Untreated fevers caused by infection, rarely pass 40 ° C, unless the child is not stripped or not much hot place.
Febrile seizures occur in some children.However, most febrile seizures (about febrile convulsions may be involved in the event of seizures at body temperature above 38 ° C in children under six years of age who have not previously suffered seizures), which quickly ended, does not mean that the child is sufferingepilepsy.
Unexplained fevers that continue for days or weeks are called "fever of unknown origin of the body."
temperature Almost any infection can cause fever.Some common infections:
- pneumonia, bone infections (osteomyelitis), appendicitis, tuberculosis, infections or skin cellulitis (acute diffuse purulent inflammation of the subcutaneous fat; cosmetic problems caused by structural changes in the subcutaneous fat layer) and meningitis (inflammation of the brain membranesbrain and spinal cord, and in clinical practice - pial inflammation, infection membranes covering the brain);
- respiratory infection - such as cold or flu, sore throats, bronchitis, ear infections, sinus infections, infectious mononucleosis (acute viral disease characterized by fever, lesions of the pharynx, liver, spleen and peculiar changes of the blood, pain in the throat and an increase inlymph nodes are also characterized by certain changes in the blood tests, caused by human herpes virus type IV or Epstein-Barr virus);
- urinary tract infection;
- viral gastroenteritis;
- bacterial gastroenteritis.
Children can have a low-grade temperature 1 or 2 days after some immunizations.
Dental pain can cause a slight rise in temperature in the child, but not higher than +38 ° C.Autoimmune and inflammatory disorders can also cause fever.Here are some examples:
- arthritis or connective tissue diseases - such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus;
- ulcerative colitis (ulcerative colitis or ulcerative colitis - immune nature of chronic inflammatory relapsing disease of the colon mucosa, resulting from the interaction between genetic factors and environmental factors, characterized by exacerbations and diffuse inflammation of the mucous membrane of the large department intestine - rectum and colon. colon UC ill people of all ages, often - 20-40 years, 60-70 years, men and women suffer equally often);
- Crohn's disease (a chronic nonspecific granulomatous inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, which can affect all of its divisions, from the mouth and ending with the rectum, with a primary lesion of the terminal segment of the ileum and ileokolitom in 50% of cases, it affects all levels of the digestive tube,inflammation, lymphadenitis, ulceration and scarring of the bowel wall);
- vasculitis (or vasculitis, arteritis -. generalizing the generic name of a group of diseases in which the painful process involved several organs or tissues in the basis of these diseases is inflammation of the blood vessel wall) or periarteritis nodosa (leading to progressive organ failure, inflammatorythe defeat of the arterial wall vessels of small and medium caliber with the formation of microaneurysms).
first symptom of cancer can be a high body temperature.This is especially true for: Hodgkin's disease (or Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin disease - malignant disease that affects organs of the lymphatic system, mainly the lymph nodes, as well as - the spleen, thymus, adenoids, tonsils A / u are part of the lymphatic system.they are interconnected lymphatic vessels, which circulates a special liquid - a lymph; Hodgkin's disease, any group l / y may be involved in the process in the advanced stages can affect the internal organs - liver, lungs, and bones and bone) as well.and - non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (or lymphoma Burkitt - very high degree of malignancy that develops from B-lymphocytes and has a tendency to spread beyond the lymphatic system - in the bone marrow, blood and cerebrospinal fluid develops as a result of cytopathic effects on lymphoid cells Epstein-Barr virus.without treatment progresses rapidly and leads to death), and leukemia.
Other possible causes of elevated body temperature:
- blood clots or thrombosis;
- medicines - such as some antibiotics, antihistamines, and anticonvulsants.
Treatment and care home with fever and high temperature
simple cold or viral infection can sometimes cause high body temperature (38,9-40 ° C).This does not necessarily mean that the patient is an adult or a child with serious health problems.Some serious infections may not cause an increase in body temperature, or even cause a very low body temperature, especially in infants.
If high body temperature - a painless, and patients do not have any other problems, the patient does not need treatment.He needs only to drink plenty of fluids and get plenty of rest.
disease is probably not serious if your child:
- want to eat or play;
- good eating and drinking water;
- responds to the call of the parents, smiling;
- a normal skin color;
- looks outwardly healthy.
Measures should be taken to reduce the fever, if the patient, including a child feels uncomfortable if he had vomiting, dehydration, or if he does not sleep well.The goal is to reduce elevated body temperature.
In an effort to reduce high body temperature:
- no need to wrap up those who have a fever;
- remove the extra clothing or blankets.The room should be comfortable, not too hot or cold.Try to take only a single layer of light things and one light blanket to sleep.If it's hot or stuffy, a fan may help in the room;
- a warm bath or sponge may help a little to cool the person with a high body temperature.This is especially effective after drug intake - otherwise, temperatures can climb back;
- do not use cold baths, ice or rubbing alcohol.They cool the skin, but often make the situation worse by causing shivering, which raises the body temperature.
Here are some guidelines for taking medicine to reduce fever:
- Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) can help reduce elevated body temperature of children and adults.Sometimes, doctors are advised to use both types of medicines;
- take acetaminophen every 4-6 hours;
- take Ibuprofen every 6-8 hours.Do not use ibuprofen for children under the age of 6 months;
- Aspirin is very effective for the treatment of elevated body temperature in adults.But you can not give it to children, even the sick;
- to know how much an adult patient or child weighs, and then always check the instructions on the packaging of medicines, and to give medications - based on weight;
- before giving medication to children under the age of 3 months or less suggested to consult a doctor.
Food and drink high body temperature - important recommendations:
- every person, especially a child, should drink plenty of fluids - is: water, popsicles, soups, gelatin, natural juices;
- do not give the patient too much fruit or apple juice, do not let sports (energy) drinks for young children;
- do not force the patient to eat much.
When to see a doctor at a high temperature?
patient should contact your doctor if:
- a child younger than 3 months, and it has a rectal temperature of 38 ° C or above;
- a child 3 to 12 months, has a high body temperature of 39 ° C or above;
- a child - under the age of 2 months, he has a high fever that lasts longer than 24-48 hours;
- child is older, has a high body temperature for more than 48-72 hours;
- the child has a temperature above 40,5 ° C, if it is not easily reduced treatment;
- the patient has other symptoms that indicate that you need to treat the disease - symptoms such as sore throat, earache, or cough;
- has a fever that comes and goes a week or more;
- has a serious illness - such as heart problems, sickle cell anemia, diabetes or cystic fibrosis;
- recently undergone immunization, but ill;
- has a new rash or bruises;
- has pain when urinating;
- has problems with the immune system (chronic steroid therapy, bone marrow transplantation or other organs, removal of the spleen, is HIV-positive and is being treated for cancer);
- recently traveled to a third world country.
recommend to address urgently in "ambulance" if the patient - adult or child - has a high body temperature, and it is:
- constantly crying and can not rest;
- can not easily or at all to wake up;
- seems frightened;
- can not move;
- has difficulty breathing, even after cleaning the nose;
- has blue lips, or tongue;
- has a very bad headache;
- has a stiff neck;
- he did not move an arm or leg (especially - in children).
recommend to consult a doctor immediately if the patient - an adult and if he:
- has a temperature above 40,5 ° C, if it is not easily reduced treatment;
- has a high body temperature, which remains at or continues to rise above 40 ° C;
- has a high body temperature over 48-72 hours;
- has a high body temperature, which appears and disappears a week or more, even if it is not very high;
- has a serious illness - such as heart problems, sickle cell anemia, diabetes, cystic fibrosis (or cystic fibrosis - common system hereditary disease caused by mutations in the gene transmembrane regulator of cystic fibrosis and is characterized by lesions of exocrine glands, severe disabilities anddefeat all the organs that secrete mucus: respiratory system, pancreas, liver, sweat glands, salivary glands, glands, intestines, gonads), COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - independent disease, which is characterized by partially irreversible airflow limitation inairways, triggered by an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung tissue to stimulation by pathogenic particles and gases) or other chronic lung disease;
- has a new rash or bruises;
- has pain when urinating;
- has problems with the immune system (steroid therapy, bone marrow transplantation or other organs, removal of the spleen, is HIV-positive and is being treated for cancer);
- recently traveled to a third world country.
doctor will perform a diagnostic examination, which may include a detailed analysis of the skin, eyes, ears, nose, throat, neck, chest and abdomen, to find the cause of an elevated body temperature.
Treatment depends on the length and causes of elevated body temperature, as well as other symptoms.
following tests may be performed:
- blood tests - the total or differential;
- chest X-ray.