Large fontanelle in infants
Encyclopedia Symptoms / / May 14, 2016
Fontanelle - a soft, neokostenevshy site vault newborn babies skull, consisting of remnants of the membranous skeleton and the bones of the skull.This is where the skull bones are connected with each other, but not entirely.
fontanelles - is, in fact, remnants of the membranous skeleton, which allow at birth 'compress' the cranial vault that facilitates the passage of the newborn through the birth canal, and helps in the faster growth of the brain.The large fontanelle is usually in the process of ossification of the skull is completely closed to 12-24 months.Wedge and rear fontanels - within a few months after birth.After the closure of the fontanelles calvaria formed seams.
too large fontanelles - fontanels is that for a certain age the child more than expected.
fontanelles allow the skull to grow during the first year of the baby.Slow or incomplete closure of the skull bones is most often the cause of too large fontanelle.
reasons large fontanelle
Too large fontanelles are most commonly
- achondroplasia (a hereditary disease of man, manifested in violation processes enchondral ossification - most likely as a result of defects in the oxidative phosphorylation, on a background of normalepostalnogo and periosteal ossification, which may lead to dwarfism due to underdevelopment of the long bones, the disease is characterized by the presence of congenital anomalies, such as congenital spinal stenosis);
- Down's syndrome (a form of genomic pathology, in which most of the genotype presented 47 chromosomes instead of the 46);
- hydrocephalus (a disease characterized by excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricular system of the brain, resulting in difficulty in moving it from the circulatory system to the site of secretion place absorption);
- intrauterine delay child (birth of a child with a weight lower than expected for a given gestational age because of a mother's illness, her smoking, alcoholism or poor socio-economic conditions) growth;
- premature birth.
- Apert syndrome (a congenital malformation of the skull, combined with a deviation of the hands, when the early closure of the coronal and sagittal sutures of the skull facilitates deformation, which leads to intracranial hypertension, a form of akrotsefalosindaktilii);
- cleidocranial dysostosis (congenital bone formation defect when the skull bones are not completely ossified and no collarbone, a hereditary disease caused by mutations in the Runx2 gene located on the short arm of chromosome 6);
- congenital rubella (or "third disease" - an epidemic viral disease, usually benign, affecting mostly children, can cause serious birth defects if a woman is infected early in pregnancy, causes the development of serious chronic infection in the fetus and the formation of various malformations);
- neonatal hypothyroidism (hypothyroidism - a chronic deficiency of the thyroid gland, which is observed in children of all age groups and is polietiologic disease, one of the outstanding achievements of modern pediatric endocrinology are the development and introduction of neonatal screening program Health Service);
- osteogenesis imperfecta (. NO or "osteogenesis imperfecta" disease "Crystal Man" - a group of genetic disorders One of this group of diseases characterized by increased bone fragility People with but have insufficient amount of collagen or its quality does not meet the norm.);
- rickets (a disease bystpopastuschih infants and young children associated with metabolic disorders, and a lack of vitamin D; it affects primarily the nervous and skeletal system proceeds with violation of bone formation and failure of mineralization is mainly due to calcium deficiencyand its active form in the body of the most intense period of growth).
If the patient thinks fontanels on his head excessively large baby, be sure to talk about it with your doctor.Most of the time, this sign will have been seen during the first medical examination of the child.
doctor will diagnostic examination and ask questions about the patient's medical history, including:
- when the patient first notice that the fontanelle became great;
- what parts of the fontanelle suffered;
- Is it always the same spot (fontanelle part) or different;
- any other symptoms have a baby;
- whether from other babies large fontanelles.
Note: excessively large fontanelle is usually detected by a doctor - and parents may not be aware of his presence until they inform the doctor.
doctor can observe the size of the fontanelles and the head over several months.It can help identify problems fontanelle and head growth.Diagnostic tests may include:
- blood tests for suspected hypothyroidism;
- measuring head circumference;
- head imaging tests, including X-ray, CT or MRI;
- skull scan (usually in the newborn or infant of only a few weeks);
- ultrasound head.