Encyclopedia Symptoms / / August 12, 2017
Headache - pain or discomfort in the head or neck.Serious causes of headaches are rare.Most people with headaches can feel much better by changing lifestyle and finding opportunities for recreation, and sometimes - taking the medication.
Common Causes headache
- tension headaches. most common type of headache is caused by muscle tension in the shoulders, neck, scalp and jaw.This "tension headache."They may be associated with stress, depression, anxiety, head trauma, or other causes.Headaches of stress usually occur on both sides of the head.They often start at the back of it and extend further anteriorly.The pain may be of pressing the head portions.The shoulders, neck, or jaw may also feel a dull ache.
- Migraine. It is a neurological disorder, a frequent and characteristic symptom is regular or occasional painful and severe headaches in one or, at least - in both halves of the head.Migraine is usually not of serious head injuries, stroke or brain tumor, and pulsing the intensity and natur
- Cluster headache. This pain can be throbbing or "knocking."It usually starts at one side of the head, although it may spread to both sides.
- headache with aura. Headache may be accompanied by "aura" (a group of symptoms that prevent headaches and beginning before it).Pain is usually worse when you try to move.
- Episodic headaches , which can be caused by food - such as chocolate, certain kinds of cheese or other dairy products.Also, they can cause caffeine, lack of sleep and alcohol.
- Chronic headaches (. Headaches from excess drugs Painkillers help with occasional headaches if taken no more than 2-3 days a week to headaches is not resumed) - keep coming back and may arise from theexcessive use of painkillers.They can also be called excessive medicines from headaches.In patients who take pain relievers more than 3 days a week on a regular basis, can develop this type of headaches.
- sharp, very painful headaches pains that usually occur several times a day for a month, then leave for a similar period of time.
- Sinus headaches - pain in the front of the head and face, occurring more often - because of swelling in the nasal passages, with the cheeks, nose and eyes.Such pain is usually worse when the patient wakes up and tilted forward in the morning.
- Headaches may occur if the patient chills, flu, high fever, or premenstrual syndrome (PMS or premenstrual tension syndrome, premenstrual disease, cyclical syndrome - a complex cyclic symptom that can occur in women for 2-10 days before menstruationand which is characterized by vegetative-vascular, psycho, and metabolic and endocrine disorders, which may adversely affect the usual women's lifestyle. a significant role in the manifestation of the symptoms of PMS is played by such triggers as childbirth, abortion, nervous and mental stress, and infectious diseases. The exactcause of cyclic syndrome is still unknown).
- swollen, inflamed arteries (which supply blood to the temple of the head and neck) - a disorder that is called the "temporal arteritis."
Sometimes, headache can be a sign of more serious cases - such as:
- brain infections - such as meningitis, encephalitis, or abscesses;
- a brain tumor;
- hydrocephalus (water on the brain - a disease that is characterized by excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricular system of the brain, resulting in difficulty of moving from its place of secretion - ventricles of the brain - to the point of absorption into the circulatory system or as a result of violations of absorption);
- problems with blood vessels and bleeding in the brain - such as arteriovenous malformation (AVM - pathological, and most of innate connection between veins and arteries. Widely known iz-za its origin in the central nervous system, but can be formed inelsewhere in the body - for example, between the pulmonary trunk and the aorta - this is called "patent ductus arteriosus" Genetic predisposition to the AVM and the transfer of its inheritance are unknown is believed that the AVM -.. is not a hereditary disease arteriovenous malformation functionally is a direct arteriovenous shuntingwithout intervening capillaries), brain aneurysm or a stroke;
- «psevdotumor cerebro" (brain psevdotumor - the signs and symptoms of increased intracranial pressure, without any indications of volumetric brain education or hydrocephalus Unlike other states of increased intracranial pressure in this case is not broken consciousness of the patient, but it is -.. Not "benignintracranial hypertension "as psevdotumor untreated brain may result in loss of vision);
- subdural hematoma (acute traumatic subdural hematoma -. Accumulation of blood in the space between the arachnoid brain sheath and a portion of the dura mater in patients with acute traumatic subdural hematoma usually exhibit a significantly greater primary brain damage than patients with epidural hematoma, why resultstreating this group of patients is much worse; the form of bruises, a limited accumulation of blood in closed and open injuries of organs and tissues with blood vessels rupture; there is also a cavity containing liquid or clotted blood);
- very high blood pressure.
may be what the patient can do to immediately alleviate the symptoms of headaches.It should be:
- drink water to avoid dehydration, especially if vomit;
- relax in a quiet, dark room;
- to put on the head of a cool cloth;
- use any of the known methods of relaxation.
If your doctor has told the patient what his type of headache, the patient can do many things to control migraine or other type of headaches (eg, voltage) at home.The doctor may prescribe medications to treat his headaches.
is necessary to keep a headache diary to help find the source or cause of the symptoms.Then modify your environment or habits to avoid future headaches.
If you have a headache is recommended to record:
- date and time of onset of the headache;
- that the patient has eaten in the last 24 hours;
- how long the patient slept in the night before the headache;
- that the patient was doing and thinking just before he had a headache;
- any stress in the patient's life;
- how long the headache lasted;
- that the patient has to stop a headache.
advise try acetaminophen, aspirin, or ibuprofen for headaches from stress.Do not give aspirin to children because of the risk of Reye's syndrome (or Reye's syndrome, white liver disease, acute hepatic encephalopathy - a rare and very dangerous, acute, often life-threatening condition with a possible high mortality arises mainly in children and adolescents, usually.after a viral infection, in their treatment of the fever of viral origin - the flu, measles, chicken pox, at least - with enterovirus infection -. containing acetylsalicylic acid drugs is characterized by rapidly progressing due to cerebral edema encephalopathy and the development of fatty liver syndrome is accompanied by hyperammonemia, a marked increase.. level of AST, ALT in blood serum at a normal level of bilirubin in the basis of the syndrome is fatty liver with coagulopathy, as well - a significant increase in transaminases levels, hypoglycemia, increased levels of fatty acids and the content of ammonia, the formation of toxic metabolites that cause demyelination, neuronal damagebrain edema.Manifested by nausea, vomiting, delirium, seizures, coma.Some patients - with hereditary deficiency of mitochondrial enzymes involved in the metabolism of fatty acids).
patients should talk to your doctor, if he takes medication for pain three or more days a week.
Some headaches may be a sign of a more serious condition.Anyone who has these dangerous symptoms should immediately seek medical attention - especially if:
- this is the first headache of the patient in his life, and it interferes with their daily activities;
- headache occurs suddenly and is explosive or violent;
- the patient has described their headaches as "worse", even if it - regular headaches;
- as a patient, along with a headache - slurred speech, change in vision, problems of motion arms or legs, loss of balance, confusion, or memory loss;
- headache gets worse over a 24-hour;
- patient well, along with a headache - high fever, neck stiffness (hardness, stiffness, inflexibility, elasticity, a sharp increase in the tone of the nape muscles and their resistance to deformation, a symptom that doctors check a person is suspected to be the main neurological problems. The result is considered positive, if a man can not get his chin to the sternum), nausea and vomiting;
- headache occurs due to a head injury;
- headache became severe, with redness in one eye;
- patients older than 50 years, and also - he had problems with his vision and pain while chewing;
- a cancer patient - and new headaches.
Your doctor will need to examine the history of the patient's disease, and to conduct a survey of his head, eyes, ears, nose, throat, neck, and nervous system.
The diagnosis is usually based on symptoms stories."Headache diary" can be useful for recording information about headaches within a certain time period.Your doctor may ask questions - such as:
- is not there a headache at the site of the forehead, around the eyes, in the back of the head, behind the eyeball or in other places;
- Is the headache is localized on one side only;
- whether it is a new type of headache headaches;
- whether the patient could be described as a throbbing headache;
- whether there is a feeling of pressure in the head;
- when, at what time of the headache occurs;
- how long the patient had headaches;
- how long the headache lasted for the last time;
- headache whether the patient woke up from sleep;
- amplified if headaches during the day and at night they are reduced;
- whether there are other symptoms that begin shortly after the beginning of headaches;
- whether the patient repeated headaches;
- whether reaches the maximum intensity of the headache within 1-2 hours;
- whether the headaches worse when the patient is lying or standing;
- whether the headaches worse when the patient coughs or strains;
- if headaches occur at a particular time and whether they are associated with menstruation;
- how well the treatment at home, if the patient has tried it.
tests may include:
- blood tests and lumbar puncture if the patient the possibility of infection;
- CT or MRI of the head, if the patient has any signs of danger or a time were headaches;
- Sinus x-rays (radiographs of acute and chronic sinusitis, or -. Sinusitis, frontal sinusitis, etmoidita Lohr bodies, protecting the immune system against the penetration of infection in the body, faced primarily with the impact of various pathogens therefore they often may begin inflammation.- for example, sinusitis - an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses);
- CT or MR angiography (magnetic resonance angiography, MRA -. A study of the brain arteries using MRI, a method of obtaining images of the blood vessels using magnetic resonance imaging to conduct such research on scanners with a magnetic field strength of at least 0.3 T. This.method usually allows to evaluate the functional and anatomical features of the blood. It is a safe and highly informative method of beam diagnostics, which may allow to evaluate particular bloodstream interest to professionals in the area. the study, which allows time to appoint an appropriate treatment and, thereby, improve the course of the pathological process. It is also based onangiographic data can be carried out the planning of surgery on blood vessels).