Diseases of the sexual glands .ovarian Diseases
Endocrinology / / May 05, 2016
ovaries produce three types of hormones - estrogens, progestogens and androgens.All of them are in their structure steroids, ie, inherently contain cyclic hydrocarbon -.. Tsiklopentanpergidrofenantren consisting of four rings - A, B, C, D. The carbon atoms in tsiklopentanpergidrofenantrene numbered starting with ring A. The hydrogen atoms at carbon atomsin various steroids may be substituted with oxygen, hydroxyl radicals different.
estrogens in ring A is not saturated, and hydrogen at the 3-carbon atom is substituted by hydroxyl, m. E., They are based on a phenol group, thus also called fenolsteroidami estrogens.At the 18th carbon atom in all estrogens hydrogen is replaced by a methyl group, r. E., They are C18-steroids.
below shows the main detected in human urine estrogens:
primary estrogen, formed in the ovaries contained in the follicular fluid and in the blood veins of the ovary is estradiol-17- B.It is very easily converted by the enzyme 17-dehydrogenase in another hormone - estrone,
Third estrogen found in the ovaries, is estriol.Some authors have found it only during the luteal phase of the cycle, and others - both in the follicular and luteal phases in.
principal place of formation of estrogen in a woman's ovaries are.In women of childbearing age, they are produced in the cells of the theca interna follicle, although many authors believe that in the biosynthesis of estrogen involved together as granulosa cells and theca interna.After menopause, when ovarian follicular unit disappears completely, in some cases, especially in endometrial hyperplasia and postmenopausal bleeding, estrogen synthesis occurs in hyperplastic ovarian stroma cells.
in women ovarian tissue with normal menstrual cycle contain 0,24-0,96 mg / g of estrone, 0,50- 0,59 g / g estradiol and 0,00-0,61 mg / g of estriol.A certain amount of estrogen or their precursors, which are converted into estrogen in other tissues, is produced in the adrenal cortex cells in the beam and a mesh area.Under certain conditions, the adrenals are the major site of estrogen formation (after menopause, oophorectomy, under certain adrenal tumors).
daily production of estrogen in women of reproductive age in the various phases of the cycle ranges from 40 to 400 mcg.Of these, the adrenal glands accounts for only 15 to 30 micrograms (or perhaps even less, partly because estrogens enter the body with food), and the rest falls on the share of the ovaries.
In many tissues and organs, estrogens undergo further transformations with hydrogen substitution at the 16-carbon atom of the hydroxyl and keto groups to form estriol 16 epiestriola, epiestriola 17, 16, 17 epiestriola, 16-a-hydroxyestrone 16-Bhydroxyestrone, 16 ketoestradiola.Of great importance for the further metabolism of estrogen replacement of the hydrogen atom is at the second carbon atom on the hydroxyl and methyl groups.In this form gidroksiestradiol-2, 2-methoxyestradiol, 2-hydroxyestrone, 2-metoksiestron, 2-and 2-gidroksiestriol metoksiestriol.All these compounds were isolated from the urine of pregnant women and normal as the radioactive metabolites of estrone or estradiol.A hydrogen atom at the 6th carbon atom can also be substituted for a hydroxy or keto, but these metabolites obtained during incubation mainly liver tissues with estrogen, but not detected in urine.Known derivatives estrogen replacement of hydrogen atoms on the hydroxyl in 11 and 18 carbon atoms.Much of estrogen undergoes cleavage deeper, with the destruction of the steroid nucleus, these reactions are carried out mainly in the liver.
The estrogen content is very small.In women with normal menstrual cycles in 100 ml of blood contains 0,6-1,7 ug estrone, estradiol and 0.5-1.1 mg 0.3-1 mg estriol.Estrogen very quickly disappear from the blood.Full update occurs in estrogen for 5 min.Estrogens contained in the blood are generally in the form of conjugates with sulfuric acid and glucuronic acid, a significant portion of the conjugates of estrogens is associated with proteins.The bulk of proteins associated with blood estrogen is estrone sulfate.Conjugation
estrogen primarily in the liver and to a lesser extent in the gut.In recent studies demonstrated that estrogen and sulfates formed in the adrenals, and ovaries.
Conjugation of estrogen is not accompanied by their inactivation, since estrogen conjugates retain biological activity may be subject to various transformations.Conjugated estrogens are a form of transport for the transport of blood and excretion.
- diagnosis and treatment of climacteric neurosis
- menstrual cycle
- The use of estrogen for the treatment of climacteric neurosis
- The use of androgens in the treatment of climacteric neurosis
- Early puberty
- Menopause (Menopause) in men
- principles of hormone therapy violations
- menstrual Principles of hormonal treatment of dysfunctional uterine bleeding
- Prevention of recurrence of dysfunctional uterine bleeding
- Leydigovyh cell tumors of the ovaries hilyusa
main by isolating of estrogen from the body through the kidneys is to filter.The urine is released about 65% of the estrogen metabolites, and in the faeces - only about 10%.The share of the major best-studied estrogens (estrone, estradiol and estriol) is necessary, according to different authors, from 5 to 35% of the estrogen metabolites.
main biological effect of estrogen is that they affect the growth of female sex organs - uterus, vagina, mammary glands.They cause an increase in uterine weight, accumulation of water in it, induce proliferation, and prolonged action - and myometrial and endometrial hyperplasia and vaginal epithelium.Estrogens increase the excitability of the uterus, its sensitivity to oxytocin.In mammary glands, they lead to an increase in mostly ducts.Estrogens have an effect on the development of secondary sexual characteristics in women - the distribution of body fat, body hair on the female type.In addition to effects on reproductive organs, estrogens affect many processes in the body - they have an anabolic effect, have an impact on lipid metabolism have protivoateroskleroticheskim action, delay the spread of infection in the body by enhancing immune responses and phagocytosis, affect the exchange of adrenal hormones (inspecifically, with the increase transcortin binding of cortisol in the blood), the thyroid gland.