Anomalies and malformations of the hands and feet
Encyclopedia Symptoms / / April 28, 2016
Alternative names: ckeletnye anomalies of the hands and feet
skeletal anomalies and malformations of the hands and feet are a variety of problems in the bony structure of the limbs.Under malformations or anomalies should be understood set of deviations from the normal structure and the formation of the body, and should be distinguished from extreme variants of norm.
malformations of limb, leading to various kinds of defect usually associated with changes in the genes or chromosomes that occur during pregnancy.
Such deviations may be present at the birth of children.It is also a violation of the arms and legs may develop after birth, if children have rickets and other diseases that affect their bone structure.
The most common anomalies include:
- Amelia - complete absence of a limb;
- ectromelia - hypoplasia or absence of the hands or feet;
- hemimelia - shortening or absence of lower limb, usually ulna and radius or tibia and fibula;
- phocomelia - certainly in appearance resemble the fins;
- polydactyly - the emergence of excess finger hands or feet.
Causes hand and foot malformations
emergence of these states occurs under the influence of a variety of internal and external factors that most often observed in countries with a high level of industrial development and technological progress.
reasons for anomalies and limb malformations are not always known.Nevertheless, we can highlight the overall statistics:
- in 40-60% of cases - the causes of birth defects are unknown;
- 20-25% anomalies evolve under the influence of several factors in the aggregate;
- 10-13% in exposure to the external environment is guilty of structural anomalies of the extremities;
- at 12-25% also contributes to genetic predisposition.
The most common skeletal anomalies of the hands and feet may be associated with problems such as:
- genetic diseases and chromosomal abnormalities, including Marfan syndrome, Down syndrome, Apert (Apert, akrokraniodisfalangiya, akrosfenosindaktiliya, akrotsefalosindaktiliya) syndrome, basal cell nevus;
- wrong position of the fetus in the womb;
- infection during pregnancy;
- trauma during delivery;
- metabolic disorders;
- pregnancy problems, including amputation of hands and feet;
- use of certain drugs during pregnancy, including thalidomide, which acts on the upper part of the arms or legs, Aminopterin, which leads to difficulties operation forearm.
Diagnostics hand and foot malformations
encourage the patient to see a doctor if they have any concerns about the length or the overall appearance of its limbs.
baby with anomalies of hands and feet usually has other symptoms and signs that, when taken together, define a specific syndrome or condition or provide a key to understanding the causes of these anomalies.Diagnosis is based on family history and medical history and a thorough assessment of the physical condition of the patient.
doctor may ask the following questions:
- do you have someone in the family of the patient's skeletal abnormalities;
- whether there were problems in a patient mother during her pregnancy by him;
- which drugs were taken by his mother during her pregnancy by him;
- which still have symptoms or disorders.
can hold other studies - such as a chromosomal studies, enzymatic assays, X and metabolic studies.