Alopecia - hair loss
Encyclopedia Symptoms / / April 22, 2016
Alternative names: hair loss;baldness;telogen effluvium
Partial or complete loss of hair is called alopecia.Alopecia - is a pathology associated with hair loss and thinning or absolute disappearance in various parts of the head or torso.The most common types of alopecia include: androgenetic, symptomatic or diffuse, alopecia or alopecia, and traumatic scar.Telogen effluvium - a common form of hair loss within 2 or 3 months after the high stress of the body: a long illness, a serious infection, or a complicated operation, as well as - after a dramatic change in hormone levels, especially in women after childbirth.Socially and often the hair falls out from all parts of the head.While hair on some parts of the scalp may become thinner, you rarely see large bald spots on the head.Each hair
located in a cavity in the skin called the follicle.Eventually, the follicle may decrease, whereby the hair becomes thinner and shorter.Usually volosyprodolzhayut grow, but in men, with very few follicles stop g
Hair loss usually develops gradually and may be partial or complete.Diffuse hair loss - the type of balding women, which manifests itself as a result of the sensitivity of hair follicles to the hormone dihydrotestosterone.Therein lies the reason for baldness in women in 95% of cases.At the same time every day, the patient loses about 100 hairs from his head.The average head contains about 100,000 hairs.
Both men and women tend to lose hair thickness and amount as they age.Baldness is not usually caused by a disease.It is associated with aging, heredity and changes in the hormone testosterone.Inherited "baldness" affects many more men than women.About half of men begin balding by 30 years, and most of them have baldness by the age of 60 years.
Common causes of hair loss
sudden physical or emotional stress can cause one-half to three-quarters of the hair throughout the scalp skin (telogen effluvium).The patient will notice a handful of fallen from the head of hair when using shampoo, combing and stroking the hair on the arms head.This usually happens after the stress of the episode, but not immediately, but after a few weeks or months.The hair loss is reduced to 6-8 months.
reason for this type of hair loss:
- high fever or severe infection;
- heavy operation (any organ), major illness, sudden loss of blood;
- severe emotional stress;
- crash diet (from the English "crash" - "to destroy, to break"; an effective way to lose weight, diet, at which weight loss is very rapid, weight literally destroyed Doctors not happy with these fast diets that give really... the threat to human health usually, crash diets - this mono-diet or diets that involve a simple set of products The most important thing - to have the willpower and motivation to save, then there will be good results) - are especially dangerous ones, which do not contain enough protein;.
- a number of drugs, including retinoids (structural synthetic analogues of vitamin A and natural compounds with vitamin A activity, or - retinol
Vitamin A does in the body many important functions: it is required for the retina, immune reactions, osteogenesisproliferation and differentiation of cells; it prevents the development of malignant tumors, tumors of its synthetic retinoids have been established drugs that have a specific action and giving little side effects vitamin a dissolved in fats and comes into contact with food or produced from carotenoids - precursors of vitamin..a, contained in a large amount in vegetables, especially carrots physiological action of vitamin a -. the plural, and the more important features include participation in differentiation of tissues in the process of growth in general, performing the functions of and reproduction Retinoids may form naturally.during metabolism of vitamin a, but most of them are produced by synthetic means);birth control pills;beta-blockers (beta blockers - a group of pharmaceuticals, which when administered to a human body occurs beta-adrenoceptor blocking their conventionally divided into two groups: B1-adrenergic blockers, adrenergic blockers and B1-B2-adrenoreceptor blockade When B1-..adrenergic cardiac effects mainly observed, reduced strength and decreased heart rate, ie there is a negative chronotropic action, inhibited cardiac conduction, ie there is a negative effect dromotropic. When B2-adrenergic blockade is an increase in bronchial tone, the tone of the pregnant uterus,arteriolar tone and increase PR. Beta-adrenergic receptors are present in smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, respiratory tract, arterial, kidneys and other tissues and are responsible for the body's response to stress, especially if stimulation of epinephrine. Beta-blockers prevent binding of epinephrine and otherhormone receptor and therefore weaken the effects of stress), a number of antidepressants, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including ibuprofen, and calcium channel blockers.
Some women aged 30-60 years can be noted in his thinning hair, which affects all the skin of the head.Hair loss may be the first time abundant, and then gradually slow down or stop completely.There is no clear reason for this type of hair loss.
Other possible causes of hair loss, especially if they are unusual in nature, include:
- alopecia areata - bald patches that develop on the scalp, beard, and, possibly, eyebrows.Also eyelashes may fall out;
- anemia (it's clinical and hematological syndrome, a common phenomenon for which - decrease in hemoglobin concentration in the blood, often with a decrease at the same time the number or total volume of red blood cells This concept does not determine a specific disease without detailing That is, anemia is considered one..symptoms of various pathologies);
- autoimmune disease (a class of diseases, heterogeneous clinical manifestations and is caused by abnormal development of reproductive auto-aggressive clones killer cells against healthy, normal body tissues or autoimmune antibodies, resulting in destruction and damage of normal tissues and the development of autoimmune inflammation) - suchsuch as systemic lupus erythematosus (often referred to as' systemic lupus erythematosus ", SLE, or disease Libman-Sacks - a diffuse systemic autoimmune connective tissue disease characterized by immune complex systemic lesions of connective tissue and its derivatives, as well as the defeat of the microcirculatory vessels in lupus antibodies.produced by the human immune system damages the DNA of healthy cells, mostly damaged connective tissue with the presence of vascular disease component name is due to its apparent features - a rash on the cheeks or nose that resembles a wolf bites).;.
- Burns disease (or osteohondropatija ulna Osteochondropathy - is necrosis of cancellous bone - aseptic, chronic, giving as a complication of microfractures Osteochondropathy usually - a consequence of disorders of blood circulation, which arise as a result of various factors:. Metabolic, congenital, traumatic, and so on.. d Osteochondropathy - extremely dangerous disease, since the early stages of its identify virtually impossible, and its consequences can be quite serious weakening in the structure of skeleton may lead to that the bone may break -. and not only under the external influence, but also underthe action of gravity of the human body as a result of muscle spasms and muscle resulting in a surge);
- certain infectious diseases - for example, such as syphilis (systemic chronic infectious venereal disease with lesions of the mucous membranes, skin, bones, internal organs, nervous system, with a succession of stages of the disease, caused by bacteria of the order of spirochetes, species Treponema pallidum or. treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum Syphilis is sexually transmitted Ill equally men and women, mainly - reproductive age).;
- too frequent shampooing and blow-drying the hair;
- hormonal changes;
- thyroid disease;
- nervous habits - for example, the constant pulling at his hair or rubbing your scalp;
- radiation therapy;
- tinea capitis (or ringworm of the scalp, or herpes zoster -. Infectious disease that develops in undergoing chickenpox and arises from the activation of its "sleeping" virus affects the skin and nervous system first appears malaise., weakness, headache, low-grade fever, and then, perhaps, -. a light fever and indigestion in the field of future eruptions are possible itching, burning and pain, this period lasts 1-4 days, in adults it is slightly longer than in children..However, the disease can begin and sharply -. with a headache, raising the temperature to 38-39 ° C, fever and skin rash cutaneous manifestations of the disease begins with the fact that on the body on peripheral nerves course there are small, 2-5 mm in diameter, pink spots. during the day, these spots appear bubbles It is accompanied by itching and pain under the skin bubbles usually edematous and erythematous Content bubbles -... first transparent, but cloudy with time.The skin lesions in the area - are less sensitive.After a time, dry up blisters, crusts, erosions are formed in their place.By the end of the third week of crusts disappear, their place may be left pigmentation.Often in children shingles can be accompanied by swollen lymph nodes or regional catarrhal symptoms - runny nose, nasal congestion, scratchy and sore throat.Shingles causes a Herpes Zoster virus, which is unstable in the environment, quickly dies when heated under the influence of disinfectants and ultraviolet.However, it is well maintained at low temperatures.Caused by a fungus that invades the hair and cause their destruction.Naked lot of hair loss usually becomes round and the scalp is covered with black dots.It may also be mild itching.Ringworm is spread by contact from one infected person to another by sharing brushes, combs, pins, hats, pillows and towels.Sometimes the reason for the appearance of microscopic fungi are minor injuries of the head.Children aged three to ten years, especially boys, are more susceptible to this virus.Ringworm of the scalp is not dangerous.However, if left untreated, the hair loss may be plentiful, and some people will head swelling of the skin);
- ovarian or adrenal tumor.
Hair Loss Treatment
Hair loss during menopause or childbirth often returns to normal over a period of 6 months to 2 years.When hair loss due to disease symptoms such as: high body temperature, radiation therapy, on medication, or other reasons - no treatment is required.Hair generally grows back, when the disease is cured or completed treatment.The patient can wear a wig, hat or other head covering, until his hair grows back e.Changes in hairstyle can disguise hair loss.As a rule, this is the cheapest and safest approach to hair loss problem.Particles of hair should not be sutured to the scalp, since there is a risk of scarring and infection.
patient should consult a doctor if:
- he loses his hair in an unusual way;
- he loses his hair rapidly or at an early age (for example, as a teenager or young man, a woman);
- he has pain or itching with the hair loss;
- the skin of his head in some areas - a red, scaly, or has other abnormalities;
- he has acne or facial hair, or an abnormal menstrual cycle;
- if it is a woman who has a male pattern baldness;
- have bald spots on the chin or eyebrows;
- he is gaining weight or have muscle weakness, and intolerance to cold temperatures, or fatigue.
Careful medical history and examination of the hair and skin of the patient's head is usually sufficient to diagnose the cause of his hair loss.The doctor will ask detailed questions to the patient for diagnosis - such as:
- whether the person loses hair only, or also head - the other parts of his body;
- whether there is a pattern in the hair loss - a receding hairline or thinning hair or a receding hairline at the crown or hair loss all over the head;
- whether the patient has recently serious illness or fever;
- color hair if the patient;
- if it dries hair;if so - how frequently;
- how often the patient washes the hair;
- a shampoo or any hair-spray, gel, etc.the patient uses their hair;
- whether the patient a lot of stress lately;
- if he had a nervous habits that include hair pulling or scalp rubbing;
- whether the patient's other symptoms - such as itching, flaking or redness of the scalp;
- what medicines the patient takes, including, possibly, drugs.
tests that can be performed (but are rarely needed) include:
- blood tests to rule out the disease;
- microscopic examination of plucked hair;
- skin biopsy (biopsy - a research method in which the fence is carried lifetime of cells or tissue from the body for diagnostic purposes A biopsy is mandatory method of confirming the diagnosis of suspected presence of cancer tumors and cancer.).
When herpes scalp creams and lotions used to treat the affected areas of the skin, do not fall into the hair follicles to kill the fungus.It may therefore require the use of oral medications - such as griseofulvin.