Diseases of sex glands and ovaries diseases
Endocrinology / / April 26, 2016
female sex organs because of the different location and topographic features of the physiological functions are divided into external genitalia and internal reproductive organs.Ovaries (ovaria) - paired organ, located in the abdominal cavity on the back sheet of the broad ligament, 3-4 cm long and 2-2.5 cm wide.Weight ovary - b-7 was
in the ovaries of women age chadorodnogo distinguish 2 layers - the cortical and brain.The surface of the ovary is covered with a single layer of cuboidal germinal epithelium, under which is albuginea (tunica albuginea).
In cortical layer positioned follicles at different stages of maturation (primordial, ripening, atresial follicles, yellow and white body) among the fibrous connective tissue stroma.Closer to the surface of the ovary are located primordial follicles, which are the first, the simplest form of the follicle, which consists of a primary eggs and a narrow range of follicular epithelial cells, shrouded in a thin rim of connective tissue.Primordial follicles ar
medulla of the ovary is richly supplied with blood vessels, which are sent to the cortex.Brainstorming layer has a looser structure than the cortex.Stroma is composed of collagen and elastic fibers.Medulla enters the gates of the ovary.
In the gate of the ovary is an ovary network (rete ovarica) - rudimentary education such as rete testis, which consists of a system of narrow tubules.The menopausal ovary network can hypertrophy.
Since puberty there is a growth and maturation of primordial follicles from the stage graafova bubble to mature egg follicle rupture during ovulation and its transformation into the corpus luteum.
egg maturation process occurs as follows.Single row follicular epithelium proliferates gradually encircling the egg.From the proliferating epithelial cells formed granular sheath of the follicle (membrana granulosa).In the center of the granulosa layer appears the cavity is filled with a transparent follicular fluid, which contains the female sex hormones.Gradually follicular fluid pushes the granulosa cells to the periphery, where they are placed in 1 - 2 layers, with the exception of a limited area around the egg.Here they form oviparous tubercle (cumulus oophorus), which is located in the center of the egg.At this stage, the egg is called a conversion graafovym follicle.The stroma surrounding the egg, is also undergoing a transformation: the outer part forms the connective tissue sheath (theca folliculi externa) and the inner part - theca interna.Connective tissue sheath is rich in blood vessels;It consists of connective tissue cells epithelioid type.Theca interna cells are very similar to those of the luteal cells of the corpus luteum, so they are also called the theca lutein cells.
further maturation process concerns egg.Maturing egg grows in size, it is transformed into the cytoplasm deytoplazmu - nutritious yolk, part remains in the form of an ordinary egg yolk.Egg is surrounded by a shiny shell (zona pellucida) and granulosa cells that lie in regular rows, creating a corona radiata eggs.
Under graafova follicle egg is not yet capable of fertilization.She is doing two more division: first mitotic, before ovulation, when one of the daughter cells remains in place, and the second, rudimentary, falls into okolozheltkovoe space.In the second, "reducer", the division of the egg separates the half set of chromosomes (12 pairs) of the guide with, pressure relief Taurus.
After maturation the follicle bursts, ovulation occurs, the egg falls from the follicular fluid in the shock tube.
whole process of follicle maturation lasts 12-14 days.The moment of ovulation occurs between the 14th and 16th days of the menstrual cycle.
In place of the bursting of the follicle, a new endocrine gland - yellow body (corpus luteum).
Few of maturing follicles become a mature follicle.All other maturing follicles undergo atresia - zapustevaniyu and later overgrown by connective tissue with the formation of fibrous atresial bodies.The processes of maturing follicles atresia seems to occur under the influence of large amounts of estrogen, follicle ripening allocated.
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After ovulation cavity of the follicle collapses, breaking the place closes blood clotsand fibrin, and the remaining granular shell formed corpus luteum cells.The phase between the yellow cells of the body shell granular proliferation proliferate, lay large folds greatly increase in size and take the yellow color due to the accumulation in them lipohromnogo pigment.In addition, cells of the corpus luteum lipids appear as a fine graininess.From the theca interna cells embedded in the luteal blood vessels and connective tissue.The whole process of proliferation and vascularization lasts for 3-4 days, followed by a stage of the corpus luteum heyday, when it turns into endocrine gland produces a hormone of the corpus luteum - progesterone and other progestogens.
If the egg is fertilized, the corpus luteum continues to grow, turning into the corpus luteum of pregnancy.If fertilization does not occur, there is a process of regression of the corpus luteum during which the corpus luteum cells are dystrophic changes, replaced by connective tissue.As a result of the corpus luteum is transformed into a whitish hyaline education - white body (corpus albicans).White body in women of reproductive age are absorbed in menopause, they do not dissolve, becoming a permanent component of the ovary.