Epidemiology / / April 29, 2016
Brucellosis - bacterial disease caused by a group of related bacteria, are recorded as a single and multiple diseases and, less commonly, outbreaks.
Etiology The causative agents of disease - Brucella - divided into 3 types: the causative agent of brucellosis in sheep and goats, the causative agent of brucellosis in cattle and swine brucellosis pathogen.
Brucella is highly resistant organism.For example, in cow's milk are stored 10 to 45 days, oil - from 25 to 67 days, the cheese - 14 to 44 days, BRYNZA - from 15 to 45 days, in meats - from 14 to 20 days in the wooland skin (sheep) - up to 3-4 months, in water - from 5 to 150 days in dry soil - up to 44 days in wet soil to 72 days.For high temperature resistant Brucella little.The liquid medium at 60 ° they are killed after 30 minutes by boiling die almost immediately.Disinfectants in destroying their normal concentrations for a few minutes.
Danger known species of Brucella is not the same.The most dangerous for the human
Brucella different species are able to migrate from their usual hosts on other species.The most frequently observed causative agent of brucellosis migration of sheep or goats cattle.As a result, the specified animal species in some cases, becomes a source of danger to human brucellosis.The causative agents of brucellosis
cause allergic restructuring and the formation of antibodies.This is the basis of allergic and serological diagnostic methods used in clinical, epidemiologic and epizootic practice.
Brucella found in the blood, lymph nodes, spleen, kidney, liver, feces and other secretions of the patient.
The incubation period ranges from 1-3 weeks.
Immunity Immunity is formed slowly and is not strong enough.Recurrent disease occur in 2-7% of cases.Russian researchers showed that there is a cross protection with brucellosis.
source of infection
Brucellosis affects many species of animals.However, certain types of animals in epidemiological terms are inadequate.In our country, the most common source of infection are the sheep and goats.Cattle, pigs, horses, camels, dogs and cats epidemiologically less dangerous.In the northern areas are an important source of infection deer.A sick person a little dangerous to others.
pathogen from the body of the animal is released from the amniotic fluid, urine, feces, abnormal discharge and milk, as well as in the blood and in the meat of the animal.Therefore, infection occurs mainly as a result of contact with the amniotic fluid, aborted fetuses, objects which were release containing Brucella, and nutritional way.It is also possible contamination by water.Regarding the infection through the air, biting arthropods data unconvincing, although such a possibility can not be excluded.
Infection during maintenance, inspection, milking, shearing, assist at the hotel, cutting of carcasses observed in animal husbandry and livestock from being in individual use.
infection through food and the dishes more typical for urban areas.Infection often occurs at the same time through the milk and milk products.Meat from animals in that respect less dangerous if it is not to eat raw or half-baked form.
for brucellosis is characterized by distinct professional nature of disease.Most common he gets in the countryside among livestock workers (veterinarians, livestock specialists, milkmaids and others.).
The largest number of cases of brucellosis falls on spring and summer.The high incidence in spring and summer due to the fact that during this period increased the possibility of human infection by the massive calving and wider consumption of milk.
difference in the incidence of sex fully depends on the number of men and women in work in animal husbandry.Mostly professional character determines the prevalence of infection among infected persons in the active age.
incidence of brucellosis, the distribution of cases by periods of the year, professional and age groups in different types of pockets of different number of features.
In outbreaks of sheep such as the increase in the incidence of infection is caused by saving time during shearing and food by.In this regard, different periods of the year turns on and morbidity among shepherds, shearers and other trades people.There is a peculiarity in the distribution of cases by age.The most affected are people aged over 16 years.Significant morbidity may be among the population, temporarily engaged to work, especially during lambing.
in outbreaks such as goat and often there is a high incidence.However, the infection mostly occurs through the milk, and the so-called contact transmission path overshadowed.Defeats are mostly pet owners and their families.Consequently, the distribution of cases by age, profession, and in this case will be different.
in outbreaks such as mad cow infection occurs mainly food and to a lesser extent by the so-called contact.However, the intensity of the infection can also be high.However, symptomatic of the disease are recorded in a small number.Therefore, if the outbreaks of sheep and goats equivalent to the type of infection the disease, the type of cow outbreaks in the vast majority of infected no subjective and objective symptoms of brucellosis.The foci of bovine type due to stretching of the lactation period of the disease at times of the year are more evenly distributed.Some diseases marked rise in the spring time.Diseases are usually recorded in different age groups.There is a peculiarity in the distribution of cases by the nature of employment.Among those directly connected with animals (veterinarians, livestock, herdsmen, milkmaids and others.), The incidence is higher.In a large percentage of cases in these outbreaks affected and the population, which has no direct relation to the livestock.
For foci swine type characterized by random disease.In the majority of cases observed among processing pork carcasses.The foci of deer such as sick persons, caring for animals who eat raw meat and offal processing and skins.
undertakings engaged in the slaughter of animals and treatment of animal feed, the highest incidence is among persons employed directly in the production.
Thus, during epidemiological survey and analysis must take into account fully the incidence of infection patterns in different types of lesions.It should also be aware of the possibility of migration of brucella.
prevention and control measures
Prevention and control of brucellosis based on the implementation of the complex of animal health and public health measures.
In carrying out veterinary-sanitary measures main efforts aimed at protecting the farms safe from skidding brucellosis infection, localization and liquidation of the revealed centers.
Security safe brucellosis farms from introduction of infection, as experience shows, it is though difficult, but it is a solvable problem.For this purpose, in good farming animals are allowed to enter only from safe brucellosis settlements and farms.Lack of brucellosis in the economy, which is derived from animals, under the existing rules should be confirmed by a veterinary certificate, which is required to indicate the time, method and results of examination of animals before printing.Regardless of this, before starting a new party to the common herd used quarantine duration of 1 month.The arrivals of animals are examined for brucellosis using a complex method (clinical examination, serological tests, allergy test) during that month.In identifying individual animals infected with brucellosis, it is recommended to take the whole batch of meat.Healthy herds kept in isolation for opportunities.
is important to avoid contact with animals from other farms, not to use the pastures and water sources, which have access infected animals, and are not fed animal feed before the completion of the self-cleaning process.
Self cleaning pasture occurs not earlier than after 2-3 months, the water in stagnant waters - 3 months, hay and straw - 2 months later.
Farms, troubled by brucellosis, paramount activities, which enable to locate and then eliminate the disease.
Among the activities that allow to localize the focus of brucellosis, primarily include rearrangements exception of animals on the farm, animals conclusion beyond it, as well as removal of infected feed (hay, straw, and TD).
When recovery farms troubled by brucellosis as convincing practice, the main efforts should be directed at reducing the number of sources of brucellosis infection.In this regard, of paramount importance to identify the completeness of sick animals.
animals were positive for brucellosis should immediately separated from the herd and score first.Among the methods of elimination of brucellosis in farm animal culling and slaughter of positively reacting to brucellosis cattle yield the best results.
During the slaughter of animals brucellosis comply with a number of precautions.For example, animals with clinical signs of brucellosis can be driven on the farm on a specially equipped area.The animals react positively to brucellosis, it is recommended to deliver on the meat-packing plant on machines and hammer on sanitary slaughterhouse or in a general shop at the end of the working day.During the slaughter in this and in another case, observed measures of personal prophylaxis.The room in which slaughter was carried out, inventory and place of keeping animals before slaughter are subjected to disinfection and cleaning.When disinfecting the premises most frequently used hot 2% solution of sodium hydroxide, or 3% solution of chlorine bleach, as these drugs are processed and inventory.The soil in the field of keeping animals before slaughter and pre-slaughter period neutralize 10-20% bleach solution.
Along with slaughter shall also apply insulation economically valuable animals (breeding and high-yield cows);they are kept in isolation on the farm or in the transfer insulators for brucellosis animals.
As an auxiliary measure in the fight against brucellosis is recommended that incommunicado detention of young and grown through acquisitions of individual animal herds.
Spreading manure in the territory is absolutely unacceptable.It is recommended to remove the accumulation of a storage tank or put in piles for a period of 2 months for decontamination.Sheep manure neutralize by drying for 2 months in a fenced area.
Disposal of animal products produced on farms, unfavorable for brucellosis, achieved in different ways.Milk mostly subjected to pasteurization at 70 ° for 30 minutes or boiling.Pasteurization was carried out in the economy, unfavorable for brucellosis, or dairy plant.