Epidemiology / / April 27, 2016
word "disinfection" means the destruction of pathogenic germs in the human environment.Given the role of disinfection system and prevention measures it adopted to subdivide preventive and focal.The latter, in turn, divided into current and final.
Preventive disinfection can prevent the spread of infectious diseases in the community or among specific population groups.To this end, it is carried out in water supply installations, in food facilities, including the place of trade of food, plants, processing of animal feed in public places (railway stations, clubs, hotels, theaters, vehicles, etc.), In health care facilities, latrines and public t. d. depending on the object to use different means of disinfection.So, for the disinfection of water used chlorination;dishes, bedding, and a number of other objects disinfected by boiling;in the public areas cleaned the floor with hot water or subjected to room wet cleaning with disinfectant solutions, and so on. d.
Regardless of the method of preventive disinfection, eliminating the possibility of infection by a factor eliminates the spread of not one but many diseases withthe same type of transmission mechanism.The effectiveness of this type of disinfection affects the regularity of it, so the chlorination of water at water stations, pasteurization of milk, and so on. N. Is carried out systematically.
Focal disinfection, as its name implies, is carried out in an epidemic outbreak.If there is a patient carried out the current disinfection.After hospitalization, recovery or death of the patient is carried out final disinfection.It should be noted that both types of disinfection carried out and in the hospital where the patient is infectious.
current disinfection is one of the important methods that exclude contamination of persons communicating with the patient.Its main task - the immediate neutralization of patient excretions (faeces, sputum, vomit, urine) and various objects for which they can get.
Efficiency current disinfection at different diseases varies.The best results it gives the intestinal infections due to the periodic decontamination secretions and infections of external coverings, if the affected areas are closed dressing, hats, stockings and socks, which can be easily decontaminated.For infections of the respiratory tract opportunities for current disinfection is limited because of the constant pathogen elimination in expired air.With regard to this group of diseases has paid off wearing respirators, and the use of spittoons patients with active forms of pulmonary tuberculosis.
Organization of current disinfection engaged medical workers of sanitary-epidemiological and medical institutions (Sanitary-Epidemiological Station, disinfection station, clinic, health center, children's consultation, etc..).Especially great in this respect the role of doctors and nurses, providing care at home.They must teach the patient basic rules of personal hygiene and implement rational methods of caring for him, used to prevent the spread of infection.The hospital organization current disinfection is the responsibility of the department head.
final disinfection is carried out by diseases, pathogens which can survive outside the human body.Its mission is to disinfection facilities, which are in contact with the patient (space, environment and care items, underwear, clothes, food residues, etc..).The list of objects to be disinfected, determined by a physician or paramedical personnel, based on the transmission mechanism of the disease.For example, it makes no sense to disinfect the top of the walls and ceiling with an intestinal infection.In contrast, in infections transmitted through the air, disinfection of these parts of the premises is required.The effectiveness of the final disinfection affect the timing of its implementation.Therefore, in accordance with the instructions it should take place not later than 6 hours cities and 12 hours after the countryside patient evacuation.
you perform various types of disinfection used mechanical, physical and chemical methods and means.They are very diverse.
By mechanical methods and tools include hand washing with soap and a brush, wet cleaning, dust removal with a vacuum cleaner and shake-out soft things, laundry, periodic whitewashing the walls, ventilation of premises, and so on. D. Therefore, by mechanical means andmeans the germs are not destroyed and removed from various sites.Therefore, it is advisable to separate mechanical methods combined with the use of chemicals.
from physical methods and means used often boiling, burning and steaming.
For neutralization boiling items placed in cold water and then heated.The duration of boiling (exposure) is calculated from the moment of boiling water.In the presence of objects in the vegetative forms of bacteria boiling is carried out for 15-30 minutes, and in the presence of spore forms of microorganisms - 1.5-2 hours.Metal objects (tools, utensils, etc.) Is boiled for 10-15 minutes.In these cases, the dissolution of fat and proteins present on the objects to water added 2.1% ash, 0.5% of soap or detergent.Some objects
(milk, grape juice, etc.). Vegetative forms freed from pathogenic microbes by heating at a temperature less than 100 ° (pasteurization).Apply "high" with milk pasteurization by heating to 85 ° without curing and "low" by heating to 63 ° and holding for 30 minutes.
Disinfection flowing steam and pressurized steam is carried out using autoclaves and disinfection chambers.
incineration is used for disposal of low-value materials and objects, sometimes secretions, as well as human and animal corpses.From
chemical disinfectants disinfection in practice most often used means chlorine, phenols, cresols and derivatives thereof and formaldehyde.