Epidemiology / / April 26, 2016
Immunization in the complex of preventive measures positively recommended itself in the fight against smallpox, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, rabies, plague, tularemia, anthrax and other diseases.For the prevention of dysentery, psittacosis, infectious hepatitis, scarlet fever and other diseases effective vaccines are not yet available.
For active immunization using live vaccines and vaccines from killed bacteria or chemical complexes, extracted from (chemical vaccines).In recent times also apply integrated or associated vaccine, allowing immunize simultaneously against several illnesses.
Because live vaccines real meaning in our country have a vaccine against smallpox, polio, tuberculosis, rabies, tularemia, plague, brucellosis and anthrax.Of those killed vaccines used vaccine against typhoid fever, cholera, leptospirosis, tick-borne encephalitis virus, whooping cough and other diseases.
As a means of active immunization is fully justified themselves diphtheria and tetanus toxoids.
currently uses the following methods of administration of drugs into the body: subcutaneous, dermal, intradermal, intramuscular, enteral, aerosol (aspiration) and combined.
Subcutaneous injection is used for vaccination and chemical killed vaccines and toxoids.This method is labor intensive.Apply it is possible only under strict sterility.
epidermal and intradermal methods used by immunization with live vaccines.Compared with the previous method if they have less injured tissue.When cutaneous method for technical reasons (.. Shallow or too deep incision, removal of clothing product, the residual effect of a disinfectant, etc.) are sometimes observed negative results, so held privivaemosti vaccine verification: the plague - on the following day, with brucellosis - after 1-2 days with anthrax - 2-3 day, when smallpox - on 6-8 day, with tularemia - 12-15 day.Persons with negative results are vaccinated repeatedly.
intramuscular method is used for the introduction of serum and gamma globulin.In this case it is important not only to comply with the sterility but rules adopted for injection of said preparations.
When intranasal immunization, it is imperative to remove mucus and crusts from the nasal passages.Otherwise, it may not be a condition for the healing of the vaccine virus.
Immunization enteral liquid held by the vaccine or a vaccine in the form of tablets, dragees, chocolates and so on. D. The vaccine should be taken in the presence of a vaccinator.
The selection of persons to be immunized, be sure to take into account contraindications.
Contraindications to subcutaneous immunization method
subcutaneous immunization method is contraindicated in the following diseases and conditions:
1) acute infectious diseases, including the period of convalescence;in any case, vaccination should begin at least a month later, after clinical recovery (diphtheria, pertussis) vaccination against smallpox - 2 months;
3) active tuberculosis and severe tuberculous intoxication (children under 3 years old, infected with tuberculosis, may be immunized unless under the supervision of TB specialists within 6 months revealed no clinical signs of disease);
4) allergic conditions: asthma, rheumatism in acute;
5) and acute intestinal dyspepsia and peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcers, malnutrition grade II and III;
6) acute and chronic nephritis, nephroso and periodically escalating processes Piura;
7) heart disease in the period of decompensation, post myocardial;
8) blood diseases, leukemia, hemophilia;
10) liver disease;
12) weeping eczema and extensive common purulent skin diseases;
14) diseases accompanied by cachexia;
15) during the second half of pregnancy.
bolevshih malaria vaccinations are not released, but at the same time receive anti-treatment.Not taken into account are also contraindications for vaccinations against rabies.
Contraindications to dermal and intradermal immunizations
Immunization dermal and intradermal method is contraindicated in the following diseases:
1) acute infectious diseases;
2) Serious chronic diseases of the liver, kidneys and other internal organs;
3) diseases accompanied by cachexia;
4) active tuberculosis;
5) decompensated heart defects;
6) extensive weeping eczema and common purulent skin diseases.
Contraindications to enteral method of immunization Immunization
enteral method proceeds without reaction or is accompanied by a weak reaction, and therefore this method takes into account only the following contraindications:
1) expressed dyspepsia;
2) persistent vomiting;
3) diseases that affect the general condition of the child (pneumonia, otitis media, pemphigus, etc.)..;
4) clear signs of birth trauma;
5) prematurity (child weighing less than 2 kg).
For the prevention of diseases (measles, infectious hepatitis, rabies, etc..) Use of gamma globulin (passive immunization).
The immunization is carried out in a planned manner and epidemic indications.Routine vaccination is carried out against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, smallpox, measles, tuberculosis (specific age groups), typhoid and paratyphoid (in some places), plague and tularemia (in natural foci of these diseases).According to epidemic indications vaccinations carried out to residents of settlements, in which there is a threat of the spread of disease.
on immunization efficacy, along with other factors affect the quality of the drug.It may be reduced during storage and transport under the influence of high and low temperature.At high temperatures, for example, in a relatively short time decreases the percentage of viable bacteria in live vaccines and lysis of microbial cells in vaccines from killed bacteria.Low temperatures, especially repeated freezing and thawing, not only reduces the immunogenicity of many drugs, but also leads to their complete uselessness.Therefore, live vaccines should store at 4 °, and killed vaccines - at a temperature no higher than 10 °.The same conditions must be carried and transported drugs.